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Housing should be sufficient, affordable, and resilient to damage.[1][2]


As a general rule housing should be located outside the flood plain in a geologically stable location. It should be close to transportation, employment opportunities, and shopping. It should not be located in a basin which catches air pollution but in an area where stale and polluted air naturally drains or blows away. Locations that are windy and cold such as the hill top in Wiltshire where Old Sarum, the notorious rotten borough, was located should be avoided.

Some activities are best carried out in areas inappropriate for residential housing. For example, San Francisco Bay, plagued by periodic earthquakes, is a great harbor where docks and transportation facilities should be located. The polluted basin sites occupied by Denver, Salt Lake City, and Beijing[3] were fair agricultural and grazing land. Housing in such areas should be limited to the amount and type needed for those who manage and work in appropriate activities.

In calculating the flood plain or the height of sea level it should be presumed that global warming will not be controlled.[4] Housing and other buildings in earthquake prone areas should be designed and built to minimize casualties.


  1. "Motivating business to design a more resilient nation, one building at a time" news release by Scandia National Laboratories July 23, 2013
  2. Resilience certification for commercial buildings: a study of stakeholder perspectives” Environment Systems and Decisions June 2013, Volume 33, Issue 2, pp 184-194 Barbara J. Jennings, Eric D. Vugrin, and Deborah K. Belasich
  3. "On Scale of 0 to 500, Beijing’s Air Quality Tops ‘Crazy Bad’ at 755" article by Edward Wong in The New York Times January 12, 2012
  4. "How High Could the Tide Go?" article by Justin Gillis in The New York Times January 21, 2013

External links and further reading