Help:IPA for Mandarin

From Communpedia
Jump to: navigation, search

The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) Wp→ represents Mandarin Chinese Wp→ pronunciations in Wikipedia articles.

See Mandarin phonology Wp→ for a more thorough look at the sounds of Mandarin. Please note that English equivalents given in this page may only represent very approximate sounds to the original pronunciations.

Consonant Wp→s
IPA Pinyin Wp→ English approximation
ɕ

x she
f

f fan
j

y-, -i- you
k

g scan
k can
l

l leaf
m

m moon
n

n-, -n noon
ŋ

-ng song
p

b span
p pan
ɻ

-r area (ends syllable)
s

s see
ʂ

sh sure
t

d stand
t tan

j itchy
tɕʰ q cheer
ts

z cats
tsʰ c tsunami

zh pitcher
tʂʰ ch church
w

w-, -u- water
x

h house or loch
ɥ

yu-, -ü-[1] (simultaneous y and w)
ʐ

r- Zsa Zsa (starts syllable)
Vowels
IPA Pinyin Wp→ English approximation
a

a (a, an) Somewhat like cat
ai time
ɑ

a (ang), e (er) car
ɑʊ ao how
ei[2] hey
ɛ

e (ye), a (yan, yuan) yes
œ

e (yue) No English equivalent; somewhat like bird
ə

e (en[2], eng) about
ɤ

e Somewhat like hood
i

yi/-i (yi, yin, ying) see
ɨ i (si, zi, ci, shi, zhi, chi, ri) (buzzing)[3]
ou[2] hoe
ɔ

o (wo, bo, po, mo, fo) war
u

wu/-u woo
ʊ

o (ong) hood
y

yu/-ü[1] (yu, yun) Somewhat like cute
Nasal Wp→[4]
ɑ̃ ang (angr) nasalized Wp→ [ɑ]
ə̃ eng (engr) No English equivalent. Nasalized [ə]
ʊ̃ ong (ongr) No English equivalent. Nasalized [ʊ]
IPA Pinyin Description
Tone Wp→s
ǎ ɤ̌ á, é mid rising: ˧˥
â ɤ̂ à, è high falling: ˥˩
á ɤ́ ā, ē high: ˥
à, ɤ̀ ǎ, ě medially, low: ˩
initially, mid falling: ˧˩
finally, low rising: ˩˧
in isolation, dipping: ˧˩˧
a, ɤ a, e "toneless":
low after a falling tone [â];
mid after all other tones

Notes

  1. 1.0 1.1 ü ([y], [ɥ]) is spelled u after j, q, x as [u], [w] cannot occur after these consonants.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 wei, you, wen are spelled ui, iu, un respectively in pinyin, but pronounced identically, when preceded by a consonant.
  3. Slightly "buzzing" vowels. In shi, zhi, chi, ri, the vowel is also retracted: [ɨ˞], rather like the ir in US English bird. These are sometimes transcribed as syllabic fricatives ([z̩], [ʐ̩]), but there is little frication.
  4. Only occurs in erhua Wp→ and generally not considered part of the main vowel inventory.

External links


This page contains information from Wikipedia (view authors). It has been modified so that it meets Communpedia's standards. WP