Earl Browder

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Earl Russell Browder
Chairman of the Communist Party USA
In office
1929–1945
Preceded by Jay Lovestone
Succeeded by Eugene Dennis
Personal details
Born May 20, 1891(1891-05-20)
Wichita, Kansas
Died June 27, 1973(1973-06-27) (aged 82)
Princeton, New Jersey
Political party Communist Party USA
Spouse(s) Raissa Berkman Browder
Children William, Felix, Andrew
Residence New York
Occupation Labor leader, politician
Religion None (Atheist)

Earl Russell Browder (May 20, 1891 – June 27, 1973) was an American communist and General Secretary of the Communist Party USA from 1934 to 1945. He was expelled from the party in 1946.

Biography

Early years

Earl Browder was born in Wichita, Kansas on May 20, 1891, the eighth child of an American-born father sympathetic to populism.[1] He joined the Socialist Party of America in Wichita in 1907 at the age of 16 and remained in that organization until the party split of 1912, when many of the group's syndicalistically oriented members exited the organization in response to the addition of an anti-sabotage clause to the party constitution and the recall of National Executive Committeeman William "Big Bill" Haywood.[1] Historian Theodore Draper notes that Browder "was influenced by an offshoot of the syndicalist movement which believed in working in the AF of L (American Federation of Labor)."[1] This ideological orientation brought the young Browder into contact with William Z. Foster, founder of an organization called the Syndicalist League of North America which was based upon similar policies and James P. Cannon, an IWW adherent from Kansas.

Browder moved to Kansas City and was employed as an office worker, entering the AF of L union of his trade, the Bookkeepers, Stenographers and Accountants union.[1] In 1916 he took a job as manager of the Johnson County Cooperative Association in Olathe, Kansas.

Browder was aggressively opposed to World War I and publicly spoke out against it, characterizing the fighting as an imperialist conflict. After the United States joined the war in 1917, Browder was arrested and charged under the Espionage Act conspiring to defeat the operation of the draft law and nonregistration.[2] Browder was sentenced to 2 years in prison for conspiracy and 1 year for nonregistration,[2] sitting in jail from December 1917 to November 1918.

In 1919, Browder, Cannon, and their Kansas City associates started a radical newspaper, The Workers World, with Browder serving as the first editor. In June of that year Browder was jailed again on a conspiracy charge, however, with Cannon taking over as editor.[2] Browder's second prison stint, served at Leavenworth Penitentiary, lasted until November 1920, putting him out of circulation during the critical interval when the Left Wing Section of the Socialist Party quit the SPA to form the Communist Party of America and the Communist Labor Party.[2] A series of splits and mergers followed, with the two Communist parties formally merging in 1921.

Released from prison at last, Browder lost no time in joining the United Communist Party (UCP), as well as the fledgling Trade Union Educational League (TUEL) being launched by his old associate William Z. Foster. Browder found employment as the managing editor of the monthly magazine of TUEL, The Labor Herald.

In 1920 the Communist International (Comintern) headed by Grigory Zinoviev decided to establish an international confederation of Communist trade unions, the Red International of Labor Unions (RILU, or "Profintern"). A founding convention was planned to be held in Moscow in July 1921 and an American delegation was gathered, including members of the American Communist Parties and the Industrial Workers of the World. Earl Browder was named to this delegation, ostensibly representing Kansas miners, with the non-party man Foster attending as a journalist representing the Federated Press.[3] This trip to Soviet Russia incidentally proved decisive in bringing the syndicalist Foster over to the Communist movement.

Throughout the early 1920s, Browder and Foster worked together closely in the TUEL, trying to win over the support of the Chicago Federation of Labor in the establishment of a new mass Farmer-Labor Party that would be able to challenge the electoral hegemony of the Republican and Democratic parties.

In 1928, the estranged Browder and his lover Kitty Harris went to China and lived in Shanghai where they worked together on behalf of RILU's Pan Pacific Trade Union Secretariat, a Comintern organization engaged in clandestine labor organizing. The pair returned to the United States in 1929.

CPUSA leadership

Browder became General Secretary of the Communist party in 1930 and took over the top position of party chairman in 1932 after William Z. Foster suffered a heart attack. During his term as General Secretary, Browder embraced the popular front tactic and led the CPUSA's tactic of expressing support for the New Deal of Franklin D. Roosevelt, while demanding that it should go much farther in terms of restructuring the capitalist system. Browder was the party's candidate for President of the United States in the 1936 presidential election but received only 80,195 votes. During this time, Browder made at least one and possibly two trips to the Soviet Union on a false U.S. passport.[4][5] After admitting he had traveled on a false passport in a public statement,[6] he was tried and sentenced to prison in 1940 for passport violations. Browder was released after 14 months when the United States joined World War II and became an ally of the Soviet Union.

In 1944, perceiving the end of the war and the possibility of postwar tension between Washington and Moscow, Browder made moves to distance the CPUSA from the Soviet Union, declaring that communism and capitalism could peacefully co-exist. This policy became known in the Party as Browderism. However, the CPUSA followed Stalin's instructions to reconstitute itself as the Communist Political Association.

Espionage activities

Browder engaged in espionage on behalf of the Soviet Union. Following his era, during which a number of party members engaged in espionage, the practice was abandoned.[7]

Expulsion and after

File:Earl Browder.jpg
Browder in his later years.

With the end of the Great Power alliance at the end of World War II and the beginning of the Cold War, "Browderism" came under attack from the rest of the international Communist movement. In 1945, Jacques Duclos, a leader of the French Communist Party, published an article denouncing Browder's policy. With the Comintern having been dissolved during the war, the "Duclos letter" was used to informally communicate Moscow's views. William Z. Foster, Browder's predecessor and a staunch Marxist-Leninist, led the opposition to Browder within the party and replaced him as party chairman in 1945, with Eugene Dennis taking over as General Secretary. Browder was expelled from the party in 1946.

Browder continued to campaign for his views outside the Party and criticized the CPUSA's domination by Moscow, writing that "The American Communists had thrived as champions of domestic reform. But when the Communists abandoned reforms and championed a Soviet Union openly contemptuous of America while predicting its quick collapse, the same party lost all its hard-won influence. It became merely a bad word in the American language." [citation needed]

In April 1950, Browder was called to testify before a Senate Committee investigating Communist activity. Questioned by Joseph McCarthy, Browder was willing to criticize the American Communist Party but refused to answer questions that would incriminate former comrades. He also lied under oath that he had never been involved in espionage activities.[8] Template:Editorializing Browder was charged with contempt of Congress, but Judge F. Dickinson Letts ordered his acquittal because he felt the committee had not acted legally. Browder was never prosecuted either for his perjury before the committee or for his spying on behalf of the Soviet Union.

In March 1950, Browder shared a platform with Max Shachtman, the dissident Trotskyist, in which the pair debated Socialism. Browder defended the Soviet Union while Shachtman acted as a prosecutor. It is reported that at one point in the debate Shachtman listed a series of leaders of various Communist Parties and noted that each had perished at the hands of Stalin; at the end of this speech, he remarked that Browder too had been a leader of a Communist Party and, pointing at him, announced: "There-there but for an accident of geography, stands a corpse!" [9]

An unsuccessful attempt was made to reinstate Browder to the good graces of the CPUSA following the Twentieth Party Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union in 1956, a period in which some within the American Communist Party briefly sought to exert its independence from Moscow. This effort at liberalization was soon defeated, however.

On June 2, 1957, Browder appeared on the television program The Mike Wallace Interview, where he was grilled for 30 minutes about his past in the Communist Party. Host Mike Wallace quoted Browder as having recently said "Getting thrown out of the Communist Party was the best thing that ever happened to me" and asked for elaboration. Browder replied:

"That's right. I meant that the Communist Party and the whole communist movement was changing its character, and in 1945, when I was kicked out, the parting of the ways had come, and if I hadn't been kicked out I would have had the difficult task of disengaging myself from a movement that I could no longer agree with and no longer help."[10]

"I was involved in no conspiracies," Browder adamantly declared to Wallace and his television audience.[10]

Death and legacy

Although remaining committed to the cause of socialism, Earl Browder remained outside of the Communist Party until his death in Princeton, New Jersey on June 27, 1973. He was survived by three sons, Felix, William, and Andrew, all distinguished research mathematicians who have been leaders in the American mathematical community.

Footnotes

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 Theodore Draper, The Roots of American Communism, pg. 308
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 Theodore Draper, The Roots of American Communism, pg. 309
  3. Theodore Draper, The Roots of American Communism, pg. 316
  4. Ryan, James G., Socialist Triumph as a Family Value: Earl Browder and Soviet Espionage, American Communist History 1, no. 2 (December 2002)
  5. Haynes, John E., Klehr, Harvey, and Igorevich, Fridrikh I., The Secret World of American Communism, Yale University Press (1995)
  6. Children of Moscow, Time Magazine article, 18 September 1939
  7. Weinstein, Allen, and Vassiliev, Alexander, The Haunted Wood: Soviet Espionage in America--the Stalin Era (New York: Random House, 1999)
  8. Ryan, James G., Socialist Triumph as a Family Value: Earl Browder and Soviet Espionage, American Communist History 1, no. 2 (December 2002)
  9. Is Russia a Socialist Community? The Verbatim Text of a Debate.
  10. 10.0 10.1 "The Mike Wallace Interview. Guest: Earl Browder," June 2, 1957. Retrieved October 14, 2009.

Further reading

Material by Browder

  • A system of accounts for a small consumers' co-operative New York : Cooperative League of America, 1918.
  • Unemployment, why it occurs and how to fight it Chicago, Ill. : Literature Dept., Workers Party of America, 1924.
  • Class Struggle vs. Class Collaboration. Chicago: Workers Party of America, 1925. (The little red library #2)
  • Civil War in Nationalist China. Chicago: Labor Unity Publishing Association, 1927. alternate link
  • China and American imperialist policy Chicago: Labor Unity Pub. Association, 1927.
  • Out of a job New York: Workers Library Publishers, 1930.
  • War against workers' Russia! New York: Workers Library Publishers, 1931.
  • Secret Hoover-Laval war pacts New York: Workers Library Publishers, 1931.
  • The fight for bread: keynote speech New York: Workers Library Publishers, 1932.
  • The Meaning of Social-Fascism: Its Historical and Theoretical Background. New York: Workers Library Publishers, 1933.
  • What every worker should know about the N.R.A New York: Workers Library Publishers, 1933.
  • Is planning possible under capitalism? New York: Workers Library Publishers, 1933.
  • What is the new deal? New York: Workers Library Publishers, 1933.
  • Report of the Central Committee to the Eighth Convention of the Communist Party of the USA, Held in Cleveland, Ohio, April 2–8, 1934. New York: Workers Library Publishers, 1934.
  • The Communist party and the emancipation of the Negro people New York, N.Y. : Harlem section of the Communist Party, 1934.
  • Communism in the United States. New York: International Publishers, 1935.
  • Unemployment insurance: the burning issue of the day New York: Workers Library Publishers, 1935.
  • New steps in the united front; Report on the Seventh World Congress of the Communist International, New York: Workers Library Publishers, 1935.
  • Religion and communism New York: Workers Library Publishers, 1935.
  • Security for Wall Street or for the masses Philadelphia: Communist Party of the U.S.A., 1935.
  • The people's front in America New York City : Published for the State Campaign Committee of the Communist Party by Workers Library Publishers, 1936.
  • Report of the Central Committee to the ninth National Convention of the Communist Party of the U.S.A. New York: Workers Library Publishers, 1936.
  • Democracy or Fascism: Earl Browder's Report to the Ninth Convention of the Communist Party. New York: Workers Library Publishers, 1936.
  • Zionism: address at the Hippodrome meeting Jun 8, 1936 New York: Yidburo Pub., 1936.
  • Foreign policy and the maintenance of peace: radio speech of Earl Browder, Communist Party candidate for U.S. President, delivered over a coast-to-coast network of the National Broadcasting Company, August 28, 1936. New York: Communist Party of U.S.A., 1936.
  • Lincoln and the Communists New York: Workers Library Publishers, 1936.
  • Who are the Americans? New York: Workers Library Publishers, 1936.
  • To all sympathizers of the Communist Party. [New York] n.p. 1936.
  • The Landon-Hearst threat against labor: a Labor-Day message New York : National Campaign Committee Communist Party, 1936. (Communist Party Broadcasts #2)
  • Old age pensions and unemployment insurance: radio address New York : National Campaign Committee Communist Party, 1936. (Communist Party Broadcasts #4)
  • Hearst's "secret" documents in full New York: Workers Library Publishers, 1936.
  • Acceptance speeches: Communist candidates in the presidential elections. New York: Workers Library Publishers, 1936.
  • The Communist position in 1936: radio speech broadcast March 5, 1936 New York: Workers Library Publishers, 1936.
  • Build the united people's front: report to the November Plenum of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the U.S.A., New York: Workers Library Publishers, 1936.
  • The results of the elections and the people's front: report delivered December 4, 1936 to the Plenum of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the U.S.A. New York: Workers Library Publishers, 1936.
  • What Is Communism? New York: Vanguard Press, 1936.
  • Trotskyism Against World Peace. New York: Workers Library Publishers, 1937.
  • Talks to America New York: Workers Library Publishers, 1937.
  • Lenin and Spain New York: Workers Library Publishers, 1937. alternate link
  • North America and the Soviet Union: the heritage of our people New York: Workers Library Publishers, 1937.
  • The 18th anniversary of the founding of the Communist Party; radio address delivered over a cost-to-coast network of the National Radio Broadcasting Company, September 1, 1937 New York: Central Committee Communist Party, 1937.
  • The communists in the people's front, report delivered to the Plenary meeting of the Central committee of the Communist party, U.S.A. held June 17-20, 1937. New York: Workers Library Publishers, 1937.
  • China and the U. S. A. New York: Workers Library Publishers, 1937.
  • New steps to win the war in Spain (with Bill Lawrence) New York: Workers Library Publishers, 1938.
  • Social and national security New York: Workers Library Publishers, 1938.
  • The Nazi pogrom, an outcome of the Munich betrayal, New York, N.Y., State Committee, Communist Party, 1938.
  • Unite the people of Illinois for jobs, security, peace and democracy: report to the Illinois State Convention of the Communist Party Chicago : Issued by Illinois State Committee of the Communist Party, 1938.
  • Attitude of the Communist Party on the subject of public order [Michigan?] : Chevrolet Branch of the Communist Party, 1938.
  • Report to the Tenth National Convention of the Communist Party on Behalf of the Central Committee. New York: Workers Library Publishers, 1938.
  • The democratic front for jobs, security, democracy, and peace: report to the tenth national convention of the Communist Party of the U.S.A. on behalf of the National Committee, delivered on Saturday, May 28, 1938, at Carnegie Hall, New York New York: Workers Library Publishers, 1938.
  • Traitors in American History: Lessons of the Moscow Trials. New York: Workers Library Publishers, 1938.
  • A message to Catholics. New York: Workers Library Publishers, 1938.
  • The People's Front. New York: International Publishers, 1938. (a collection of speeches and articles)
  • Concerted action or isolation: which is the road to peace? New York: International Publishers, 1938.
  • The economics of communism: the Soviet economy in its world relation New York: Workers Library Publishers, 1939.
  • Religion and Communism. New York: Workers Library Publishers, 1939
  • The 1940 elections: how the people can win New York: Workers Library Publishers, 1939.
  • Theory as a Guide to Action. New York: Workers Library Publishers, 1939.
  • Unity for peace and democracy New York: Workers Library Publishers, 1939.
  • Whose war is it? New York: Workers Library Publishers, 1939.
  • Socialism, war, and America New York: Workers Library Publishers, 1939.
  • Stop the war New York: Workers Library Publishers, 1939.
  • Finding the road to peace: radio address, Aug. 29, 1939. New York: Communist Party, 1939.
  • America and the second imperialist war, New York, New York State Committee, Communist Party, 1939.
  • Communist leader says: "Protect Bill of Rights to keep America out of war" San Francisco : Communist Party, 1939.
  • Remarks of the General Secretary of the Communist Party, Earl Browder, made at the enlarged meeting of the State Committee of the Communist Party of California on May 28, 1939 [Los Angeles, Calif.?] : California Organization and Educational Departments, Communist Party, U.S.A.,
  • Speech of Earl Browder, auspices of Yale peace council, New Haven, Conn., Nov. 28, 1939. Communist Party of America.; National Committee.; Publicity Dept.
  • The People's Road to Peace. New York: Workers Library Publishers, 1940. — Speech to 11th Convention.
  • The people against the war-makers New York: Workers Library Publishers, 1940.
  • The Jewish people and the war New York: Workers Library Publishers, 1940.
  • Internationalism, results of the 1940 election; two reports New York: Workers Library Publishers, 1940.
  • Earl Browder takes his case to the people. New York: Workers Library Publishers, 1940.
  • An American foreign policy for peace New York: Workers Library Publishers, 1940.
  • Earl Browder talks to the senators on the real meaning of the Voorhis "blacklist" bill. New York: Workers Library Publishers, 1940.
  • The most peculiar election; the campaign speeches of Earl Browder. New York: Workers Library Publishers, 1940.
  • Study guide and outline for the People's Front New York: Educational and Literature Departments, New York State Committee, Communist Party, 1940.
  • A letter from Earl Browder. New York City : Communist Party of U.S.A., 1940.
  • A message from Earl Browder to the youth of America New York : National Election Campaign Committee, Youth Division, 1940.
  • United front against fascism and war: how to achieve it! : A serious word to the Socialist Party New York City : New York District Committee, Communist Party of U.S.A., 1940.
  • The new moment in the struggle against war New York City: New York State Committee, Communist Party U.S.A., 1940.
  • Mr. Browder goes to Washington.[New York, N.Y.]: Browder for Congress Campaign Committee, 1940.
  • The communists on education and the war. New York : Young Communist League, 1940.
  • A message to California educators; Some inner contradictions in Washington's imperialist foreign policy Calif. : The Committee, 1940.
  • The message they tried to stop! the most peculiar election campaign in the history of the Republic : speech delivered by electrical transcription at Olympic Auditorium, Los Angeles, California, September 8th and at San Francisco, California, September 11, 1940 New York : National Election Campaign Committee, Communist Party USA, 1940.
  • The Second Imperialist War. New York: International Publishers, 1940.
  • The way out. New York: International Publishers, 1940.
  • The Communist Party of the USA: Its History, Role and Organization. New York: Workers Library Publishers, 1941.
  • Communism and culture New York: Workers Library Publishers, 1941.
  • Earl Browder says. New York: Workers Library Publishers, 1941.
  • The way out of the imperialist war New York: Workers Library Publishers, 1941.
  • The road to victory New York: Workers Library Publishers, 1941.
  • A different kind of party: Earl Browder tells how the Communist Party is distinguished from all other parties [U.S.? : s.n., 1941.
  • Victory--and after. New York: International Publishers, 1942.
  • Production for victory New York: Workers Library Publishers, 1942.
  • Victory must be won: Independence Day speech, Madison Square Garden, July 2, 1942 New York: Workers Library Publishers, 1942.
  • Earl Browder on the Soviet union. New York: Workers Library Publishers, 1942.
  • The economics of all-out war New York: Workers Library Publishers, 1942.
  • One year since Pearl Harbor New York: Workers Library Publishers, 1942.
  • When do we fight? New York: Workers Library Publishers, 1942.
  • 2nd front now!: this is the will of the people. S[an] F[rancisco]: Issued by California Communist Party, 1942.
  • Free the anti-fascist prisoners in North Africa: address New York, N.Y. : Communist Party, U.S.A., 1942.
  • The future of the Anglo-Soviet-American coalition New York: Workers Library Publishers 1943.
  • George Dimitroff New York: International Publishers, 1943.
  • Policy for victory New York: Workers Library Publishers 1943.
  • Wage policy in war production New York: Workers Library Publishers 1943.
  • Make 1943 the decisive year New York: Workers Library Publishers 1943.
  • The mine strike and its lessons New York City: New York State Committee, Communist Party, 1943.
  • A conspiracy against our Soviet ally; a menace to America Chicago : Distributed by Illinois State Committee of the Communist Party, 1943.
  • A talk about the Communist Party. New York: Workers Library Publishers 1943.
  • Hitler's secret weapon: the bogey of communism San Francisco, Calif. : California Communist Party, 1943.
  • Browder hits anti-Soviet Plot speech of Earl Browder, at Aperion Manor, Brooklyn, N.Y., April 1, 1943. Baltimore? : Communist Party and Young Communist League of Baltimore?, 1943.
  • A Lincoln's birthday message to you [U.S.? : Communist Party?, 1944
  • The meaning of the elections New York: Workers Library Publishers 1944.
  • Moscow, Cairo, Teheran New York: Workers Library Publishers 1944.
  • Economic problems of the war and peace, New York: Workers Library Publishers 1944.
  • The road ahead to victory and lasting peace, New York: Workers Library Publishers 1944.
  • Teheran: Our Path in War and Peace. New York: International Publishers, 1944.
  • Teheran and America; perspectives and tasks, New York: Workers Library Publishers 1944.
  • Shall the Communist Party change its name? New York: Workers Library Publishers 1944.
  • America's decisive battle New York, N.Y: New Century, 1945
  • Why America is interested in the Chinese Communists New York, N.Y: New Century, 1945
  • The press and America's future New York, N.Y: Daily Worker, 1945
  • Browder's speech to National Committee San Francisco [Calif.] : California State Committee CPA, 1945 Discussion bulletin #9
  • Appeal of Earl Browder to the National Committee C.P.U.S.A. against the decision of the National Board of February 5th, 1946 for his expulsion. Yonkers: The author?, 1946
  • The writings and speeches of Earl Browder: from May 24, 1945 to July 26, 1945. Yonkers?: The author?, 1947
  • War or Peace with Russia? New York: A.A. Wyn, 1947.
  • Soviet book news, literature, art, science. New York: 1947.
  • The Decline of the Left Wing of American Labor. Yonkers, NY: [Earl Browder], 1948.
  • Answer to Vronsky [New York? : s.n., 1948.
  • Labor and socialism in America Yonkers, N.Y: E. Browder 1948.
  • The "miracle" of Nov. 2nd: some aspects of the American elections New York? : s.n., 1948.
  • World Communism and US Foreign Policy: A Comparison of Marxist Strategy and Tactics: After World War I and World War II. New York: Earl Browder, 1948.
  • "Americus" [pseudonym], Where Do We Go From Here? An Examination of the Record of the 14th National Convention, CPUSA. n.c.: Earl Browder, 1948.
  • "Americus" Parties, issues, & candidates in the 1948 elections: brief review and analysis Yonkers, N.Y.: Earl Browder, 1948.
  • The coming economic crisis in America New York? : s.n., 1949
  • More about the economic crisis New York? : s.n., 1949
  • War, peace and socialism, New York? : s.n., 1949
  • U.S.A. & U.S.S.R.: their relative strength S.l. : s.n., 1949
  • How to halt crisis and war: an economic program for progressives S.l. : s.n., 1949
  • Chinese Lessons for American Marxists. n.c. Yonkers, NY: Earl Browder, 1949.
  • In defense of communism: against W.Z. Foster's "new route to socialism. Yonkers, NY: s.n., 1949.
  • Keynes, Foster and Marx. Yonkers, N.Y 1950
  • Earl Browder before U.S. Senate: the record and some conclusions. Yonkers, N.Y 1950
  • "Is Russia a socialist community?": affirmative presentation in a public debate Yonkers, N.Y: The author 1950
  • Language & war : letter to a friend concerning Stalin's article on linguistics Yonkers, N.Y: The author 1950
  • Modern resurrections & miracles Yonkers, N.Y: Earl Browder, 1950
  • Toward an American peace policy Yonkers, N.Y: The author 1950
  • "Should Soviet China be admitted to the United Nations?" debate. s.l. : s.n., 1951
  • The meaning of MacArthur: letter to a friend s.l. : s.n., 1951
  • Contempt of Congress; the trial of Earl Browder. Yonkers, N.Y: E. Browder 1951
  • Four letters concerning peaceful co-existence of capitalism and socialism: together with speech of June 2, 1945 on the same question Yonkers, N.Y. : Issued for private circulation only by E. Browder, 1952
  • Should America be returned to the Indians? Yonkers, N.Y. : The author, 1952
  • A postscript to the discussion of peaceful co-existence Yonkers, N.Y: E. Browder 1952
  • Marx and America: A Study in the Doctrine of Impoverishment. New York: Duell, Sloan and Pearce, 1958.
  • Socialism in America Yonkers, N.Y.: Browder, 1960.

Introductions, contributions, etc.

Articles

  • Browder, Earl, "Review of American Communism in Crisis, 1943-1957, by Joseph R. Starobin." Political Science Quarterly, Vol. 88, No. 1 (Mar., 1973), pp. 94–97.
  • Browder, Earl and Max Shachtman. Is Russia a Socialist Community? The Verbatim Text of a Debate. March 1950 debate moderated by C. Wright Mills. Published in The New International: A Monthly Organ of Revolutionary Marxism, Vol.16 No.3, May–June 1950, pp. 145–176. Retrieved June 6, 2005.

Contemporary material about Browder

  • Citizens's Committee to Free Earl Browder, A Comparative Study of the Earl Browder and Other Passport Cases. New York: n.d. [1941?].
  • Citizens's Committee to Free Earl Browder, The Browder case: a summary of facts: a brief for justice and fair play in America New York: Citizens' Committee to Free Earl Browder, 1941
  • Citizens's Committee to Free Earl Browder, The Campaign to free Earl Browder: A Report. New York: The Committee, 1942. OCLC: 27833380.
  • Communist Party of the United States of America Material for discussion leaders on the fight against Browderism.
  • Flynn, Elizabeth Gurley. Earl Browder: the man from Kansas New York: Workers Library Publishers, 1941.
  • Foster, William Z.On the struggle against revisionism New York : National Veterans Committee of the Communist Party 1956
  • Foster, William Z.; Duclos, Jaques; Dennis, Eugene; and Williamson, John, Marxism-Leninism vs. Revisionism New York: New Century Publishers, 1946.
  • Gates, John On Guard against Browderism, Titoism, Trotskyism. New York: New Century Publishers, 1951.
  • Green, Gil Browder's "coalition" - with monopoly capital [S.l. : Communist Party of the United States of America?, 1949.
  • Thompson, Robert. The path of a renegade : why Earl Browder was expelled from the Communist Party New York: New Century Publishers, 1946.
  • Thompson, Robert. The convention unanimously rejects Browder's appeal New York: New Century Publishers, 1948.
  • Time Magazine, Children of Moscow, Time, September 18, 1939.

Secondary sources

  • Haynes, John Earl, "Russian Archival Identification of Real Names Behind Cover Names in VENONA." Cryptology and the Cold War, Center for Cryptologic History Symposium, October 27, 2005.
  • Haynes, John Earl and Klehr, Harvey, Venona: Decoding Soviet Espionage in America. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2000.
  • Haynes, John Earl; Klehr, Harvey; and Igorevich, Fridrikh I., The Secret World of American Communism. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1995.
  • Isserman, Maurice, Which Side Were You On? The American Communist Party During the Second World War. Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press, 1982.
  • Klehr, Harvey, The Heyday of American Communism: The Depression Decade. New York: Basic Books, 1984.
  • Ottanelli, Fraser M., The Communist Party of the United States: From the Depression to World War II. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1991.
  • Ryan, James Gilbert, Earl Browder: The Failure of American Communism. Tuscaloosa, AL: University of Alabama Press, 2005.
  • Ryan, James G., "Socialist Triumph as a Family Value: Earl Browder and Soviet Espionage," American Communist History, v. 1, no. 2 (December 2002).
  • Schecter, Jerrold and Schecter, Leona, Sacred Secrets: How Soviet Intelligence Operations Changed American History. Potomac Books, 2002.
  • Starobin, Joseph R., American Communism in Crisis, 1943-1957. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1972.
  • Sudoplatov, Pavel Anatoli; Schecter, Jerrold L.; and Schecter, Leona P., Special Tasks: The Memoirs of an Unwanted Witness — A Soviet Spymaster. Boston: Little Brown, 1994.
  • Trahair, Richard C.S. and Robert Miller, Encyclopedia of Cold War Espionage, Spies, and Secret Operations. New York: Enigma Books, 2008. ISBN 978-1-929631-75-9
  • Weinstein, Allen and Vassiliev, Aleksandr, The Haunted Wood: Soviet Espionage in America — The Stalin Era. New York: Random House, 1999.

Archival material

  • Earl Browder Papers 1879-1967. Syracuse University Library Special Collections. Collection # (NXSV403-A). 52.0 linear ft. Online guide retrieved June 6, 2005.
  • Earl Browder Papers, 1891-1975: A Guide to the Microfilm Edition. Edited by Jack T. Ericson. 36 reels of 35mm microfilm.
  • Online guide retrieved June 6, 2005.
  • Sam Adams Darcy Papers, 1924-1985 (Bulk 1930-1945). NYU Bobst Library Special Collections. Tamiment 124. 4 linear feet (4 boxes). Online guide. Retrieved September 24, 2006
  • Francis Franklin Marxist Historical-Philosophical Manuscripts: 1920-1985. NYU Bobst Library Special Collections. Tamiment 182. 6 linear feet (6 boxes). Online guide. Retrieved September 24, 2006.
Political offices
Preceded by
Jay Lovestone
General Secretary of the CPUSA
1929–1945
Succeeded by
Eugene Dennis

External links

See also

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