Help:IPA for Portuguese and Galician

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The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) Wp→ represents Portuguese Wp→ and Galician Wp→ pronunciations. There are two major standards of Portuguese Wp→ (P)—one of Portugal Wp→ (EP) and one of Brazil Wp→ (BP)—plus one of Galician Wp→, in Galicia (G). Neither Portuguese variant is preferred over the other except in cases where a local pronunciation is clearly more relevant, such as a place in Brazil or a Portuguese artist.

See Portuguese phonology Wp→ for a more thorough look at the sounds of Portuguese.

IPA Consonants
Galicia (Spain) Portugal Brazil Examples English approximation
b

b

besta best
β

β

bado[1] between baby and bevy or best
v

cavalo; livre (P); libre (G)[2] vest or between baby and bevy
ð

d

rapadura[1] this or dice
d

dedo dice
digo[3] dice or engine
f

fase; café face
ɡ

ɡ

gato; guerra get
ɣ

magarefe; trigo[1] between go and ahold or get
k

cores; laca; quente; kelvin scan
l

l

lua; calor[4] lot
ɫ

w

mal; principal[5][4] toll; tow or lot
ʎ

velho (P); vello (G)[6] roughly like million
m

mesa; comer[4] almighty
n

nata; ano[4] sonic
ŋ

unha; inglesa; can; álbum (G)[4] singer
ɲ

manhã (P); mañá (G) roughly like canyon[7]
p

peito; topo spouse
r

ʁ ʁ raro; carro; enrascado[8][9] guttural r (P) or trilled r (G)
ɾ

lar; morte; por favor[8][9][10] ladder in American English
or guttural r
ɾ

raro; caro; bravo; por acaso[9][10] ladder in American English
ʃ

ʒ

ʒ

já; gente (P); xa; xente (G) rouge or shop
z

z

rasgado; portas brancas[11] rouge or zebra
s

z

casa; existir; portas abertas zebra or sack
θ

zona; azul zebra or thought
ʃ

s

dez; foz sheep; sketch or bath
s

cimeira; braço (P); brazo (G) sack or thought
s

saco; máximo; isso (P); iso (G) sack
ʃ

escola; mastro; portas fechadas sheep or sketch
ʃ

ʃ

xarope; baixo shop

chave; achar shop or chop

tchau chop
t

tipo; ponte[3] stand or cheese
t

tempo; átomo stand
IPA Marginal consonants
Galicia (Spain) Portugal Brazil Examples English approximation
ħ

ghato; trigho (G)[12] roughly like hook
x

kharxa[13] loch
IPA Vowels
Galicia (Spain) Portugal Brazil Examples English approximation
a a

a

taça; lá; às; Camões; alface father
ɐ

baixada; cabide; as about or father
ɐ

taça; manhã aura; finger (RP) or father
cama; banho; câmera[14] and also
anglicisms as rush, bug
purse (RP) or father
ɛ

ɛ

meta, sé set
e

prémio/prêmio[14] incrível set
e e

meto; sê; acepção[15] bed
ɨ

semáforo[16] emission or bed
i

pente; pequeno; se[16] emission; see or bed
i

meandro; e see or bed
i cima[14] si; dia; país see
ɔ

ɔ

formosa; formosos; avó ball (GA) ~ lot (RP)
o

bónus/bônus[14] hospital ball or sole (GA)
o

o

formoso; avô; oliveira sole (GA) ~ sword (RP)
u

Portugal loop or sole (GA)
u

boneco; voo; vi-o; frio[17]
u

lume[14] rua; saúde loop
IPA Nasal vowels
Galicia (Spain) Portugal Brazil Examples English approximation
ɐ̃

canto; ângulo; âmbar; lã[18] uhn-huh (nasal /ɐ/)

cento; sempre; essência[19] nasal /e/
ĩ

cinto; sim; ímpar nasal /i/
õ

conto; cônscio; bom; cômputo nasal /o/
ũ

fungo; algum; cúmplice nasal /u/
 
IPA Semivowels[20]
Galicia (Spain) Portugal Brazil Examples English approximation
j

pais; saia; cães; corações you or boy
w

quando; guarda; frequente; quão wine or cow
 
IPA Suprasegmentals
Galicia (Spain) Portugal Brazil Examples Explanation
ˈ

livre [ˈlivɾɨ] ~ [ˈlivɾi] lexical stress
ˌ

contramão [ˌkõtɾɐˈmɐ̃w] secondary stress
.

dia [ˈdi.ɐ] ~ [ˈdʒi.ɐ] syllable break

See also

Notes

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 In northern and central Portugal, /b/, /d/, and /ɡ/ are lenited to fricatives of the same place of articulation ([β], [ð], and [ɣ], respectively) in all places except after a pause, or a nasal vowel, in which contexts they are stops [b , d , ɡ ], not dissimilar from English b, d, g (Mateus & d'Andrade 2000:11).
  2. In Galician and some rural northern accents of European Portuguese, /v/ has merged with the [b ~ β] set.
  3. 3.0 3.1 In most varieties of Brazilian Portuguese, /d, t/ are affricated to [ , ] before high front vowels /i, ĩ/.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 In Galician, nasal and lateral consonants only contrast before vowels. Before consonants, they assimilate to the consonant's place of articulation. In word-final position, only /ŋ/ and /l/ occur.
  5. In European Portuguese, syllable-final /l/ is usually velarized [ɫ] much like with 'toll' for many English speakers. For most Brazilians, it has been vocalized to [w] before consonants and at the end of words. In traditional Galician, syllable-final /l/ was also velarized; but nowadays it has been widely replaced by a clear l [l] in most dialects.
  6. In some Galician dialects /ʎ/ has merged with /j/. Minor yeísmo-like merger is also present in some dialects of Brazilian Portuguese, specially the caipira one.
  7. In most Brazilian dialects, /ɲ/ is realized as a nasal palatal approximant []. See Thomas (1974:8) and Perini (2002:?).Template:Clarify
  8. 8.0 8.1 The rhotic consonant represented as /ʁ/ has considerable variation across different variants, being pronounced as [x], [h], [χ], [ʁ], etc., in Brazil; as [ʁ], [ʀ], [r], etc., in Portugal; and as [r] in Galicia. See also Guttural R in Portuguese.
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 The rhotic consonants /ɾ/ ‹r› and /ʁ/ ‹rr› only contrast between vowels. Otherwise, they are in complementary distribution as ‹r›, with /ʁ/ occurring word-initially, after ‹l›, ‹n›, and ‹s› and in compounds; /ɾ/ is found elsewhere.
  10. 10.0 10.1 The realization of syllable-final ‹r› varies amongst dialects; it is generally pronounced as an alveolar tap [ɾ] in European Portuguese, Galician and some Brazilian dialects (e.g. Rio Grande do Sul state and São Paulo city), as either an alveolar approximant [ɹ] or retroflex approximant [ɻ] in various other Brazilian dialects (primarily known for its use in caipira dialect, but also paranaense among sulista dialects, mineiro, sertanejo, and to a minor degree, some spekers of paulistano, capixaba and even fluminense) and as a guttural R in all others (e.g. Rio de Janeiro city, the overwhelmingly majority from the Northeast). Additionally, in some Brazilian Portuguese dialects, word-final ‹r› may be weakened to complete elision in infinitives; e.g. ficar [fiˈka] (note word final ‹r› is pronounced —though as a tap [ɾ]— only if it is followed by a vowel sound in the same phrase or prosodic unit: ficar ao léu [fiˈkaɾ aw ˈlɛw]).
  11. Allophone of /s/ in Galician.
  12. In some Galician dialects /ɡ/ is pharyngealized to [ħ] or glottalized to [h] in a phonological process known as gheada.
  13. In Galician, /x/ may be used in loanwords, foreign names and hispanicized names; like kharxa, Araújo (instead of Araúxo, pron. with [ʃ]) and Fagilde or Fajilde (instead of Faxilde, pron. with [ʃ]).
  14. 14.0 14.1 14.2 14.3 14.4 The 5 higher vowels /ɐ, e, i, o, u/, when stressed and followed by a nasal consonant, may assimilate the nasality.
  15. In the dialect of Lisbon, /e/ merges with /ɐ/ when it comes before palatal sounds (e.g. abelha, venho, jeito).
  16. 16.0 16.1 In European Portuguese the IPA symbol /ɨ/ denotes a near-close near-back unrounded vowel: [ɯ̟] or [ʊ̜], rather than a close central unrounded vowel.
  17. Some of the post-stressed high vowels in hiatuses, as in frio ('cold') and rio ('river'), may vary between a reduced vowel [ˈfɾi.u] and a glide [ˈfɾiw], exceptions are verbal conjugations, forming pairs like eu rio [ˈew ˈʁi.u] (I laugh) and ele riu [ˈelɨ ˈʁiw] (he laughed).
  18. In Portuguese, word final /ɐ̃/ may diphthongize to [ɐ̃w] (note this realization occurs exclusively in verbal forms spelled with final -am: namoram, falam, ruiram).
  19. In Portuguese, word final /ẽ/ diphthongizes to [ẽj] (e.g. sem, também, nuvens). In many European Portuguese dialects (especially central and southern varieties) it has become [ɐ̃j]: sem [ˈsɐ̃j]
  20. The semivowels /w/ and /j/ can be combined with most vowels to form diphthongs and triphthongs. This includes nasal diphthongs such as [ɐ̃j] and [ɐ̃w], and nasal triphthongs such as [wɐ̃w] and [wõj].


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