# Help:Wiki markup

Wiki markup is the syntax and keywords used by the MediaWiki Wp→ software to format a page. To learn how to use this markup and to save an edit, see Help:Editing pages. Many links on this page are to more complete information on Wikipedia help pages. For additional help see Wikipedia:Template:Wiki markup

## Layout

### Sections

Use headings to split articles into sections. Put a heading on a separate line. A level-two heading is the highest level editors use in an article.

What it looks like What you type

Subsection

Using more 'equals' characters creates a subsection.

A smaller subsection

Don't skip levels, like from two to four 'equals' characters.

A non-TOC subsection

A semicolon at the start of a line is a way of making headings that don't appear in the TOC. It actually bolds the entire line (see below).

The Wiki software can automatically generate

===Subsection===

Using more 'equals' characters creates a subsection.

====A smaller subsection====

Don't skip levels, like from two to four 'equals' characters.

;A non-TOC subsection
A semicolon at the start of a line is a way of making headings
that don't appear in the [[Help:Section#Table_of_contents_.28TOC.29|TOC]]. It actually bolds the
entire line (see [[#Text formatting|below]]).
Horizontal line

Separating with a horizontal dividing line:

this is above it...

...and this is below it.

If you don't use a section header, you don't get a TOC entry.

'''Horizontal line'''
Separating with a horizontal dividing line:
:this is above it...
----
:...and this is below it.
If you don't use a section header, you don't get a TOC entry.

### Line breaks

• You can make the wikitext more readable by putting in newlines, but see Wikipedia:Wikipedia:Don't use line breaks for possible problems.
• To break lines use the <br /> element. The HTML tag <br> will be converted to the XHTML <br /> tag by HTML Tidy in most instances. The <br> tag is not converted when used in editnotices or in the MediaWiki namespace— it will render invalid XHTML and will break tools such as Twinkle.
• Close markup between lines; do not start a link or italics or bold on one line and close it on the next.
• When used in a list, a newline does affect the layout (See Wikipedia:Help:List).
What it looks like What you type

A single newline has no effect on the layout.

But an empty line starts a new paragraph, or ends a list or indented part.

A single newline has no
effect on the layout.

But an empty line starts a new paragraph, or ends a list or indented part.

You can break lines
without starting a new paragraph.

You can break lines<br />
without starting a new paragraph.

### Indent text

What it looks like What you type

Left indent

A colon at the start of a line
causes the line to be indented,
most commonly used on Talk pages.
:A colon at the start of a line
::causes the line to be indented,
:::most commonly used on Talk pages.

Blockquote
When there is a need for separating a block of text. This is useful for (as the name says) inserting blocks of quoted (and cited) text.

The blockquote tag will indent both margins when needed instead of the left margin only as the colon does.

<blockquote> The '''blockquote''' tag will indent both margins when needed instead of the left margin only as the colon does. </blockquote>

### Center text

What it looks like What you type
Centered text
<div class="center" style="width:auto; margin-left:auto; margin-right:auto;">Centered text</div>

Template {{center}} uses the same markup. To center a table, see Wikipedia:Help:Table#Centering tables.

### Lists

What it looks like What you type
• Unordered lists are easy to do:
• Start every line with a star.
• More stars indicate a deeper level.
Previous item continues.
• A new line
• in a list

marks the end of the list.

• Of course you can start again.
* ''Unordered lists'' are easy to do:
** Start every line with a star.
*** More stars indicate a deeper level.
**: Previous item continues.
** A new line
* in a list
marks the end of the list.
* Of course you can start again.
1. Numbered lists are:
1. Very organized
2. Easy to follow
Previous item continues

A new line marks the end of the list.

1. New numbering starts with 1.
# ''Numbered lists'' are:
## Very organized
## Easy to follow
#: Previous item continues
A new line marks the end of the list.
# New numbering starts with 1.

### Retaining newlines and spaces

The MediaWiki software suppresses single newlines and converts lines starting with a space to preformatted text in a dashed box. HTML suppresses multiple spaces. It is often desirable to retain these elements for poems, lyrics, mottoes, oaths and the like. The Poem extension adds HTML-like <poem>...</poem> tags to maintain newlines and spaces. These tags may be used inside other tags such as <blockquote>...</blockquote>.

What it looks like What you type

A stately pleasure-dome decree:
Where Alph, the sacred river, ran
Through caverns measureless to man
Down to a sunless sea.

So twice five miles of fertile ground
With walls and towers were girdled round:
And there were gardens bright with sinuous rills,
Where blossomed many an incense-bearing tree;
And here were forests ancient as the hills,
Enfolding sunny spots of greenery.

<poem>
A stately pleasure-dome decree:
Where Alph, the sacred river, ran
Through caverns measureless to man
Down to a sunless sea.

So twice five miles of fertile ground
With walls and towers were girdled round:
And there were gardens bright with sinuous rills,
Where blossomed many an incense-bearing tree;
And here were forests ancient as the hills,
Enfolding sunny spots of greenery.
</poem>

## Format

### Text formatting

What it looks like What you type

You can italicize text by putting 2 apostrophes on each side.

3 apostrophes will bold the text.

5 apostrophes will bold and italicize the text.

A semicolon at the start of a line bolds the entire line.

Sometimes, it functions as a section header (see above).

You can ''italicize text'' by putting 2
apostrophes on each side.

3 apostrophes will '''bold the text'''.

5 apostrophes will '''bold''' and ''italicize''
'''''the text'''''.

;A semicolon at the start of a line bolds the entire line.
Sometimes, it functions as a section header
(see [[Wikipedia:Help:Wiki markup#Sections|above]]).

Syntax highlighting for source code.

Computer code has a colored background and more stringent formatting. Suppose we want to define int main():

#include <iostream>
int main ( int argc,  char **argv ) {
std::cout << "Hello World!";
return 0;
}
Computer code has a colored background
and more stringent formatting. Suppose we
want to define <code>int  main()</code>:

<syntaxhighlight lang="cpp">#include <iostream>
int main ( int argc,  char **argv ) {
std::cout << "Hello World!";
return 0;
}</syntaxhighlight>

You can use small text for captions.

You can use <small>small text</small> for captions.

Better stay away from big text, unless it's within small text.

Better stay away from <big>big text</big>, unless
<small> it's <big>within</big> small</small> text.

You can include a non-breaking space (sometimes called non-printing character) where you require two words to always appear together on the same line, such as Mr. Smith or 400 km/h using &nbsp; in place of a regular space between the two "words" that need to behave as a single word (never be separated on different lines).

Mr.&nbsp;Smith or 400&nbsp;km/h.

Extra spacing within text can best be achieved using the pad template:

Typewriter font (does also work beyond the end of a paragraph):
arrow →

New paragraph started here.

<tt>arrow      &rarr;</tt>

<tt>''italics''</tt>

New paragraph </tt>started here.

### Special characters

#### Diacritical marks

What it looks like What you type

À Á Â Ã Ä Å
Æ Ç È É Ê Ë
Ì Í Î Ï Ñ Ò
Ó Ô Õ Ö Ø Ù
Ú Û Ü ß à á
â ã ä å æ ç
è é ê ë ì í
î ï ñ ò ó ô
œ õ ö ø ù ú
û ü ÿ

&Agrave; &Aacute; &Acirc; &Atilde; &Auml; &Aring;
&AElig; &Ccedil; &Egrave; &Eacute; &Ecirc; &Euml;
&Igrave; &Iacute; &Icirc; &Iuml; &Ntilde; &Ograve;
&Oacute; &Ocirc; &Otilde; &Ouml; &Oslash; &Ugrave;
&Uacute; &Ucirc; &Uuml; &szlig; &agrave; &aacute;
&acirc; &atilde; &auml; &aring; &aelig; &ccedil;
&egrave; &eacute; &ecirc; &euml; &igrave; &iacute;
&icirc; &iuml; &ntilde; &ograve; &oacute; &ocirc;
&oelig; &otilde; &ouml; &oslash; &ugrave; &uacute;
&ucirc; &uuml; &yuml;

#### Punctuation

What it looks like What you type

¿ ¡ § ¶
† ‡ • – —
‹ › « »
‘ ’ “ ”

&iquest; &iexcl; &sect; &para;
&dagger; &Dagger; &bull; &ndash; &mdash;
&lsaquo; &rsaquo; &laquo; &raquo;
&lsquo; &rsquo; &ldquo; &rdquo;

#### Other punctuation

The ‹pre› and ‹nowiki› markup tags are also available. (Permits [ { & } ] for example.)

#### Commercial symbols

What it looks like What you type

™ © ® ¢ € ¥
£ ¤

&trade; &copy; &reg; &cent; &euro; &yen;
&pound; &curren;

#### Subscripts and superscripts

• The Manual of Style prefers the x<sub>1</sub> format.
• The latter methods of sub/superscripting cannot be used in the most general context, as they rely on Unicode support which may not be present on all users' machines. For the 1-2-3 superscripts, it is nevertheless preferred when possible (as with units of measurement) because most browsers have an easier time formatting lines with it.
Description What it looks like What you type

Subscripts

x1 x2 x3 or
x₀ x₁ x₂ x₃ x₄
x₅ x₆ x₇ x₈ x₉

x<sub>1</sub> x<sub>2</sub> x<sub>3</sub> or
x&#8320; x&#8321; x&#8322; x&#8323; x&#8324;
x&#8325; x&#8326; x&#8327; x&#8328; x&#8329;

Superscripts

x1 x2 x3 or
x⁰ x¹ x² x³ x⁴
x⁵ x⁶ x⁷ x⁸ x⁹

x<sup>1</sup> x<sup>2</sup> x<sup>3</sup> or
x&#8304; x&sup1; x&sup2; x&sup3; x&#8308;
x&#8309; x&#8310; x&#8311; x&#8312; x&#8313;

Combined

ε0 = 8.85 × 10−12 C² / J m.
1 hectare = 1 E4 m²

&epsilon;<sub>0</sub> = 8.85 &times;
10<sup>&minus;12</sup> C&sup2; / J m.

1 [[hectare]] = [[1 E4 m&sup2;]]

#### Greek characters

What it looks like What you type

α β γ δ ε ζ
η θ ι κ λ μ ν
ξ ο π ρ σ ς
τ υ φ χ ψ ω
Α Β Γ Δ Ε Ζ
Η Θ Ι Κ Λ Μ
Ν Ξ Ο Π Ρ Σ
Τ Υ Φ Χ Ψ Ω

&alpha; &beta; &gamma; &delta; &epsilon; &zeta;
&eta; &theta; &iota; &kappa; &lambda; &mu; &nu;
&xi; &omicron; &pi; &rho; &sigma; &sigmaf;
&tau; &upsilon; &phi; &chi; &psi; &omega;
&Alpha; &Beta; &Gamma; &Delta; &Epsilon; &Zeta;
&Eta; &Theta; &Iota; &Kappa; &Lambda; &Mu;
&Nu; &Xi; &Omicron;&Pi; &Rho; &Sigma;
&Tau; &Upsilon; &Phi; &Chi; &Psi; &Omega;

#### Mathematical characters

What it looks like What you type

∫ ∑ ∏ √ − ± ∞
≈ ∝ ≡ ≠ ≤ ≥
× · ÷ ∂ ′ ″
∇ ‰ ° ∴ ℵ ø
∈ ∉ ∩ ∪ ⊂ ⊃ ⊆ ⊇
¬ ∧ ∨ ∃ ∀
⇒ ⇐ ⇓ ⇑ ⇔
→ ↓ ↑ ← ↔

&int; &sum; &prod; &radic; &minus; &plusmn; &infin;
&asymp; &prop; &equiv; &ne; &le; &ge;
&times; &middot; &divide; &part; &prime; &Prime;
&nabla; &permil; &deg; &there4; &alefsym; &oslash;
&isin; &notin; &cap; &cup; &sub; &sup; &sube; &supe;
&not; &and; &or; &exist; &forall;
&rArr; &lArr; &dArr; &uArr; &hArr;
&rarr; &darr; &uarr; &larr; &harr;

#### Mathematical formulae

• Complex formulae should use $markup. • Simple formulae may use either [itex] markup or HTML/wiki markup using the {{math}} template with <i> and <b> or '' and ''' for formatting. Make sure to replace = with {{=}}. • Ordinary text should use wiki markup for emphasis. However, mathematical formulae often use italics, and sometimes use bold, for reasons unrelated to emphasis. Per Wikipedia:Manual of Style (mathematics), wiki markup ('' and ''') is preferred over HTML markup (<i> and <b>), but both are allowed. What it looks like What you type [itex]\,\! \sin x + \ln y$
Template:Math

$\mathbf{x} = \mathbf{0}$
Template:Math

$\,\! \sin x + \ln y$<br>
{{math|sin ''x'' + ln ''y''}}

$\mathbf{x} = \mathbf{0}$<br>
{{math|<b>x</b> {{=}} <b>0</b>}}

#### Spacing in simple math formulae

• Using &nbsp; to prevent linebreak is not needed; the {{math}} template will prevent line breaks anyway; you can use <br> if you need an explicit line break inside a formula.
What it looks like What you type

It follows that Template:Math is true when Template:Math is a real number.

It follows that {{math|''x''<sup>2</sup> &ge; 0}} is true when {{math|<VAR>x</VAR>}} is a real number.

#### Complicated formulae

What it looks like What you type
$\sum_{n=0}^\infty \frac{x^n}{n!}$
: $\sum_{n=0}^\infty \frac{x^n}{n!}$

In Wikipedia and some other Wikipedia:Wikis, free links are used in Wikipedia:Wikitext markup to produce Wikipedia:internal links between pages, as opposed to the concept of Wikipedia:CamelCase for the same purpose, which was used in the early days of Wikipedia, see CamelCase and Wikipedia.

In Wikipedia's markup language, you create free links by putting double square brackets around text designating the title of the page you want to link to. Thus, [[Texas]] will be rendered as Texas. Optionally, you can use a Wikipedia:vertical bar (|) to customize the link title. For example, typing [[Texas|Lone Star state]] will produce Lone Star state, a link that is displayed as "Lone Star state" but in fact links to Texas.

#### Link to another Wiki article

• Internally, the first letter of the target page is automatically capitalized and spaces are represented as underscores (typing an underscore in the link has the same effect as typing a space, but is not recommended).
• Thus the link below is to the URL en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Public_transport, which is the Wikipedia article with the name "Public transport". See also Canonicalization.
• A red link is a page that doesn't exist yet; it can be created by clicking on the link.
• A link to its own page will appear only as bold text.
What it looks like What you type

London has Wikipedia:public transport.

London has [[Wikipedia:public transport]].

Link to this own article: "Help:Wiki markup" will appear only as bold text.

Link to this own article: "[[Help:Wiki markup]]" will appear only as bold text.

• Same target, different name.
• The target ("piped") text must be placed first, then the text to be displayed second.
What it looks like What you type

New York also has public transportation.

New York also has [[Wikipedia:public transport|public transportation]].

• Simply typing the pipe character (|) after a link will automatically rename the link in certain circumstances. The next time you open the edit box you will see the expanded piped link. When previewing your edits, you will not see the expanded form until you press Save and Edit again. The same applies to links to sections within the same page.
• See Pipe trick for details.
Description What it looks like What you type

Automatically hide stuff in parentheses.

[[Wikipedia:kingdom (biology)|]].

Automatically hide namespace.

[[Wikipedia:Wikipedia:Village pump|]].

Or both.

But this doesn't work for section links.

• Endings are blended into the link.
• Exception: a trailing Wikipedia:apostrophe (') and any characters following the apostrophe are not blended.
• Preferred style is to use this instead of a piped link, if possible.
• Blending can be suppressed by using <nowiki></nowiki> tags, which may be desirable in some instances.
Description What it looks like What you type

Blending active.

San Francisco also has Wikipedia:public transportation. Examples include Wikipedia:buses, Wikipedia:taxicabs, and Wikipedia:trams.

San Francisco also has [[Wikipedia:public transport]]ation. Examples include [[Wikipedia:bus]]es, [[Wikipedia:taxicab]]s, and [[Wikipedia:tram]]s.

Blending suppressed.

A Wikipedia:micro-second.

A [[Wikipedia:micro-]]<nowiki></nowiki>second

#### Link to a section of a page

• The part after the number sign (#) must match a section heading on the page. Matches must be exact in terms of spelling, case, and punctuation. Links to non-existent sections are not broken; they are treated as links to the top of the page.
• Include "| link title" to create a stylish (piped) link title.
• If sections have the same title, add a number to link to any but the first. #Example section 3 goes to the third section named "Example section". You can use the pipe and retype the section title to display the text without the # symbol.
What it looks like What you type

Wikipedia:Wikipedia:Manual of Style#Italics is a link to a section within another page.

[[Wikipedia:Wikipedia:Manual of Style#Italics]] is a link to a section within another page.

#Links and URLs is a link to another section on the current page. Links and URLs is a link to the same section without showing the # symbol.

[[#Links and URLs]] is a link to another section on the current page. [[#Links and URLs|Links and URLs]] is a link to the same section without showing the # symbol.

Italics is a piped link to a section within another page.

[[Wikipedia:Wikipedia:Manual of Style#Italics|Italics]] is a piped link to a section within another page.

• To create a new page:
1. Create a link to it on some other (related) page.
2. Save that page.
3. Click on the link you just made. The new page will open for editing.
• For more information, see starting an article and check out Communpedia's naming conventions.
• Please do not create a new article without linking to it from at least one other article.
Description What it looks like What you type

Links to pages that don’t exist yet look red.

The article about Wikipedia:cardboard sandwiches doesn't exist yet.

The article about [[Wikipedia:cardboard sandwiches]] doesn't exist yet.

### Redirects

• Redirect one article title to another by placing a directive like the one shown to the right on the first line of the article (such as at a page titled "USA").
• It is possible to redirect to a section. For example, a redirect to United States#History will redirect to the History section of the Wikipedia:United States page, if it exists.
Description What you type

Redirect to an article.

#REDIRECT [[Wikipedia:United States]]

Redirect to a section.

#REDIRECT [[Wikipedia:United States#History]]

What it looks like What you type

See the [[Wikipedia:Wikipedia:Manual of Style]].

• To link to a page on the same subject in another language, use the form: [[language code:Title]].
• It is recommended interlanguage links be placed at the very end of the article.
• Interlanguage links are not visible within the formatted article but, instead, appear as language links on the sidebar (to the left) under the menu section "languages".
• Please see Interlanguage links and the Complete list of language wikis available.

Description What you type

Link to the German version of "Wikipedia:Plankton".
"de" is the language-code for "Deutsch" (the Wikipedia:German language).

[[de:Plankton]]

Other examples.

[[de:Plankton]] [[es:Plancton]] [[ru:Планктон]] [[simple:Plankton]]

Description What it looks like What you type

Linking to a page on another wiki in English.
All of these forms lead to the URL http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Hello

Without prefix.

[[Wiktionary:Hello]]

[[Wiktionary:Hello|]]

[[Wiktionary:Hello|Wiktionary definition of 'Hello']]

Linking to a page on another wiki in another language.
All of these forms lead to the URL http://fr.wiktionary.org/wiki/bonjour

Without prefix.

[[Wiktionary:fr:bonjour]]

[[Wiktionary:fr:bonjour|]]

[[Wiktionary:fr:bonjour|bonjour]]

### Categories

• To put an article in a category, place a link like the one to the right anywhere in the article. As with interlanguage links, placing these links at the end of the edit box is recommended.
• To link to a category page without putting the article into the category, use a colon prefix (":Category") in the link.
Description What it looks like What you type

Categorize an article.

[[Category:Character sets]]