Collections of Buddhist literature

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General

  • Sacred Books of the Buddhists series, 1895-, Pali Text Society: English translations, mainly Theravada but does include a few other works.
  • Bibliotheca Buddhica series, St Petersburg, 1897- : Sanskrit
  • Buddhist Sanskrit Texts series, Darbhanga, 1958-

Theravada

  • Pali Text Society
    • series of Pali texts
    • series of translations, mostly English but a few in French or German
  • Pali Canon: regarded in Theravada tradition as the "Word of the Buddha"

The following parallel table of contents of three editions can be verified by direct inspection of the scans linked.

book B C K
Vinaya Piṭaka 1-5 1-6 1-13
Suttanta Piṭaka 6-28 7-40 14-77
,, Dīgha Nikāya 6-8 7-9 14-19
,, Majjhima Nikāya 9-11 10-12 20-28
,, Saṃyutta Nikāya 12-14 13-17 29-39
,, Aṅguttara Nikāya 15-17 18-23 40-51
,, Khuddaka Nikāya 18-28 24-40 52-77
,, ,, Khuddakapāṭha 18 24 52
,, ,, Dhammapada ,, ,, ,,
,, ,, Udāna ,, ,, ,,
,, ,, Itivuttaka ,, ,, 53
,, ,, Suttanipāta ,, 25 54
,, ,, Vimānavatthu 19 26 55
,, ,, Petavatthu ,, 27 56
,, ,, Theragāthā ,, 28 56-57
,, ,, Therīgāthā ,, 29 57
,, ,, Jātaka 22-23 30-32 58-63
,, ,, Mahā Niddesa 24 33 64-66
,, ,, Culla Niddesa 25 34 67-68
,, ,, Paṭisambhidāmagga 26 35 69-71
,, ,, Apadāna 20-21 36-37 72-76
,, ,, Buddhavaṃsa 21 38 77
,, ,, Cariyāpiṭaka ,, ,, ,,
,, ,, Netti 27 39
,, ,, Peṭakopadesa 27 40
,, ,, Milindapañha 28
Abhidhamma Piṭaka 29-40 41-52 78-110
,, Dhammasaṅgaṇi 29 41 78-79
,, Vibhaṅga 30 42-43 80-82
,, Dhātukathā 31 47 83
,, Puggalapaññatti ,, ,, ,,
,, Kathāvatthu 32 44-46 84-86
,, Yamaka 33-35 48-49 87-93
,, Paṭṭhāna 36-40 50-52 94-110
  • B: Chaṭṭha Saṅgīti Piṭaka, Latin-script edition, Ministry of Religious Affairs, Yangon, 2008
  • C: Buddhajayanti Tripitaka Granthamālā, published under the patronage of the government of Ceylon/Sri Lanka, 1957-1989
  • K: Braḥ Traipiṭakapāḷi, 110 volumes, Phnom Penh, 1931-1969

See also Parallel volume-by-volume table of contents of a number of editions; see [3] for the code letters used there.

The Japanese translation of the Pali Canon is called Nanden Daizokyo. It is in 65 nominal volumes in 70 actual volumes. It was translated by numerous scholars, edited by Junjiro Takakusu, and published by Daizo Shuppan Kabushiki Kaisho in Tokyo from 1935 to 1941.[1] The following account has been put together without a knowledge of Japanese, from secondary sources. The nature of these sources is such that it is not always clear what order texts appear within a volume. This is indicated by use of numbered and unnumbered lists accordingly.

  • 1-5 Vinaya Piṭaka
  • 6-8 Digha Nikăya
  • 9-11 Majjhima Nikăya
  • 12-16 Samyutta Nikăya
  • 17-22 Anguttara Nikăya
  • 23-44 Khuddaka Nikăya
    • 23
      • Khuddakapatha
      • Dhammapada
      • Udana
      • Itivuttaka
    • 24
      • Suttanipata
      • Vimanavatthu
    • 25
      • Petavatthu
      • Theragatha
      • Therigatha
    • 26-27 Apadana
    • 28-39 Jataka (apparently including the commentary)
    • 40 Patisambhidamagga 1
    • 41
      • Patisambhidamagga 2
      • Buddhavamsa
      • Cariyapitaka
    • 42-43 Maha Niddesa
    • 44 Cul(l)a Niddesa
  • 45 Dhammasangani
  • 46 Vibhanga 1
  • 47
    • Vibhanga 2
    • Dhatukatha
    • Puggalapannatti
  • 48-49 Yamaka
  • 50-56 Patthana
  • 57-58 Kathavatthu
  • 59 Milindapanha
  • 60
    • Dipavamsa
    • Mahavamsa
  • 61 Cul(l)avamsa
  • 62-64 Visuddhimagga
  • 65
    1. introduction to Samantapasadika
    2. Abhidhammatthasangaha


  • commentaries on the Canon: the table below lists the texts in the volumes of the editions listed here:
    • Simon Hewavitarne Bequest series, 49 volumes, 1917-1952 (C)
    • Burmese edition, 52 volumes, 1956-1961 (B[2])
    • Thai edition, 48 volumes, 1920, reissued 1992 with added footnotes (S[3])
book B C S
Samantapāsādikā on Vinaya Piṭaka 1-4 28, 45-46, 48 1-3
Pātimokkha 5 30
Kaṅkhāvitaraṇī on Pātimokkha ,, ,,
Vinayasaṅgaha 6
Sumaṅgalavilāsinī on Dīgha Nikāya 7-9 4, 19 4-6
Papañcasūdanī on Majjhima Nikāya 10-13 35, 44, 47, 49 7-9
Sāratthappakāsinī on Saṃyutta Nikāya 14-16 16, 22, 31 10-12
Manorathapūraṇī on Aṅguttara Nikāya 17-19 15, 33 13-15
Paramatthajotikā on Khuddakapāṭha 20 11 16
commentary on Dhammapada 21-22 5, 13 17-18
Paramatthadīpanī on Udāna 23 6 19
,, on Itivuttaka 24 23 20
Paramatthajotikā on Suttanipāta 25-26 7 21-22
Paramatthadīpanī on Vimānavatthu 27 17 23
,, on Petavatthu 28 1 24
,, on Theragāthā 29-30 2, 18 25-26
,, on Therīgāthā 31 3 27
commentary on Jātaka 36-42 20, 24, 32, 36-37, 39, 41 28-37
Saddhammappajjotikā on Niddesa 43-44 10, 14 38-39
Saddhammappakāsinī on Paṭisambhidāmagga 46-47 21 40-41
Visuddhajanavilāsinī on Thera Apadāna 32-33 29, 43 42-43
Madhuratthavilāsinī on Buddhavaṃsa 34 12 44
Paramatthadīpanī on Cariyāpiṭaka 35 26 45
commentary on Netti(ppakaraṇa) 45 9
Atthasālinī on Dhammasaṅgaṇi 48 42 46
Sammohavinodanī on Vibhaṅga 49 34 47
commentary on Dhātukathā 50 38 48
,, on Puggalapaññatti ,, ,, ,,
,, on Kathāvatthu ,, ,, ,,
,, on Yamaka ,, 40 ,,
,, on Paṭṭhāna ,, ,, ,,
Visuddhimagga 51-52 8
commentary on Suttasaṅgaha 25
Sāratthasamuccaya on parittas 27


  • subcommentaries on the commentaries: Burmese edition,[4] 26 volumes, 1961-1962
    • 1-5 three subcommentaries on Samantapāsādikā
      • 1-3 Sāratthadīpanī
      • 4-5 Vimativinodanī
      • 6 one by Vajirabuddhi
    • 7 two subcommentaries on Kaṅkhāvitaraṇī
    • 8-12 two subcommentaries on Sumaṅgalavilāsinī
      • 8, 11, 12 old subcommentary
      • 9-10 Sādhuvilāsinī, subcommenting only on commentary on Sīlakkhandhavagga
    • 13-15 subcommentary on Papañcasūdanī
    • 16-17 subcommentary on Sāratthappakāsinī
    • 18-20 Sāratthamañjūsā on Manorathapūraṇī
    • 21
      • subcommentary on Netti commentary
      • later commentary on Netti
    • 22 subcommentary on Atthasālinī and subsubcommentary thereon
    • 23 subcommentary on Sammohavinodanī and subsubcommentary thereon
    • 24 subcommentary on remaining 5 Abhidhamma commentaries and subsubcommentary thereon
    • 25-26 Paramatthamañjūsā on Visuddhimagga
  • ongoing Bhumibalo project in Thailand includes all Pali texts surviving in manuscipts in Thailand
  • The Simon Hewavitarne Bequest fund, in addition to the commentary series detailed above, apparently also issues text and subcommentary series, but only fragmentary information seems to be currently available on them
  • The Buddhist Cultural Centre in Dehiwala, Sri Lanka, is producing series of Sinhalese and English translations of the commentaries, and editions of the subcommentaries, but these are apparently not yet complete

East Asian

  • the following can all be regarded as different editions of the main East Asian collection of texts, though the differences in content between them are much more substantial than those between different editions of the Pali Canon, or those between different editions of the Kanjur
    • Shu-pen/Ssu-ch'uan edition, 972-983, 480 volumes
    • 1st Korean edition, c. 1010, 570 volumes, based on above
    • Liao/Kitan edtion, 1031-1064, Peking, 579 volumes
    • Ch'ung ning wan-shou ta-tsang/Tung-ch'an, 1080-1104, Fu-chou, 564 volumes
      • with supplement Shou-leng-yen i-hai ching, 1172/6, 595 volumes
    • P'i-lu ta-tsang/Fu-chou K'ai-yüan, 1112
    • Ssu-ch'i yüan-chüeh tsang/Nan-Sung Hu-chou, begun 1132, Hu-chou/Che-chiang, 548 volumes
    • Chao-ch'eng-tsang, known as Chin/Jurchen edition, 1148-1173, Chieh-chou/Shansi, 682 volumes
    • Chi-sha tsang, 1231-1322, Su-chou/Chiang-su, 591 volumes
    • Korean edition, 1237-1251, 639 volumes
    • Ssu-ch'i tzu-fu tsang, 1237-1252, Hu-chou, 599 volumes
    • Hung-fa tsang, 1277-1294, Peking
    • P'u-ning tsang, 1278-1294/1277-1290, Hang-chou, 587 volumes
    • Nan-tsang, 1368-98, Nanking
    • Pei-tsang, 1402-1424, Peking
      • supplement, 1584, Hsü ju tsang ching, 693 volumes
      • further, Yu hsü tsang, 412 volumes
    • Chinese edition by nun Fa-chan, c. 1500
    • Mi-tsang edition, 1586-1606/1616, based on Pei-tsang
    • edition by Japanese monk Tenkai, 1633-1645
    • edition by Japanese monk Tetsugen, 1678-1681, based on Mi-tsang
    • K'ang-hsi edition, completed 1677
    • edition of Emperors Yung-cheng and Ch'ien-lung, 1735-1738, based on Pei-tsang, with additions
    • Nanking, 1869-1870, reprint of above
    • Dainihon kōtei shukusatsu daizōkyō, Tokyo, 1880-1885, 318 volumes
    • Dainihon kōtei daizōkyō, Kyoto, 1902-1905, 36 volumes
    • Dainihon zokuzōkyō, Kyoto, 1905-1912, 150 volumes, supplement to above
    • Shanghai, 1909-1914
    • Taisho Shinshu Daizokyo, 100 volumes, 1924-1934; contents:[5]
      • 1-32 [actual or purported Chinese translations of Indian texts]
        • 1-2 A-han (Āgama, roughly corresponding to the first 4 nikāyas of the Suttanta Piṭaka of the Pali Canon (above))
        • 3-4 Pen-yuan (Avadāna, nominally corresponding to Apadāna in the Pali Canon above, but with little overlap; also includes jātakas and lives of the Buddha)
        • 5-8 Pan-jo (Prajñā[pāramitā])
        • 9 Fa-houa ([Sad]dharmapuṇḍarīka)
        • 9-10 Hua-yen (Avataṃsaka)
        • 11-12 Pao-tsi (Ratnakūṭa)
        • 12 Nie-p'an ([Mahāpari]nirvāṇa)
        • 13 Ta-tsi (Mahāsannipāta)
        • 14-17 King-tsi (collection of sūtras, i.e. all those not already included in the above sections)
        • 18-21 Mi-kiao (tantra)
        • 22-24 Liu (vinaya)
        • 25-26 Che-king-louen (commentaries on sūtras)
        • 26-29 P'i-t'an (abhidharma; no actual correspondence with the Abhidhammapiṭaka of the Pali Canon, though a shared methodology and some common material)
        • 30 Tchong-kouan (Mādhyamika)
        • 30-31 Yu-k'ie (Yogā[cāra])
        • 32 Louen-tsi (collection of treatises)
      • 33-55 [Chinese texts]
        • 33-39 King-chou (commentaries on sūtras)
        • 40 Liu-chou (commentaries on vinaya)
        • 40-44 Louen-chou (commentaries on treatises)
        • 44-48 Tchou-tsong (writings of schools [of Buddhism])
        • 49-52 Che-tchouan (historical traditions)
        • 53-54 Che-houei (collections of materials [miscellaneous, including non-Buddhist])
        • 55 Mou-lou (catalogues)
      • 56-85 [Japanese texts]
        • 56-61 Zokukyōsho (further commentaries on sūtras)
        • 62 Zokuritsusho (further commentaries on vinaya)
        • 63-70 Zokuronsho (further commentaries on treatises)
        • 70-84 Zokushoshū (further writings of schools)
        • 85 Shittan (siddhaṃ: an esoteric script)
        • 85 Koitsu & Giji ("résiduels" & doubtful)
      • 86-97 Zuzō (iconography: photographs)
      • 98-100 Shōwahōbōsōmokuroku (catalogues)
    • Bunyiu Nanjio[6] gives the following table of contents for an unspecified Ming dynasty (1368-1644) edition; most likely they're all the same; at any rate, it appears from the summaries of earlier catalogues in his introduction that all pre-modern editions were arranged pretty much like this:
      1. Kiṅ-tsâṅ (Sūtra Piṭaka)
        1. Tâ-shaṅ (Mahāyāna)
          1. Pân-zo-pu (Prajñā[pāramitā])
          2. Pâo-tsi-pu (Ratnakūṭa)
          3. Tâ-tsi-pu (Mahāsannipāta)
          4. Hwâ-yen-pu (Avataṃsaka)
          5. Niê-phân-pu ([Mahāpari]nirvāṇa)
          6. Wu-tâ-pu-wâi-kuṅ-yi-kiṅ (alternative translations)
          7. Tân-yi-kiṅ (other)
        2. Siâo-shaṅ (Hīnayāna)
          1. Ö-hân (Āgama)
          2. Tân-yi-kiṅ (other)
        3. Suṅ-yuen-zu-tsâṅ-ku-tâ-siâo-shaṅ (additions during Song and Yuan dynasties)
      2. Lüh-tsâṅ (Vinaya Piṭaka)
        1. Mahāyāna
        2. Hīnayāna
      3. Lun-tsâṅ (Abhidharma Piṭaka)
        1. Mahāyāna
        2. Hīnayāna
        3. additions during Song and Yuan dynasties
      4. Tsâ-tsâṅ (miscellaneous)
        1. Si-thu-shaṅ-kwân-tsi (Indian)
          1. Tshz'-thu-ku-shu (Chinese)
          2. Tâ-miṅ-suh-zu-tsâṅ-ku-tsi (additions during Ming dynasty)
          3. Pe-tsâṅ-khüê-nân-tsâṅ-hân-hâo-fu (additions from Southern Collection)
  • Han'gǔl taejanggyǒng, 1965- : Korean translation
  • selection of texts from the Taisho translated into English and published by the Numata Center
  • collections issued by various branches of Japanese Buddhism

Tibetan

  • Kanjur (bKa'-'gyur): translations of Indian texts regarded as the "Word of the Buddha"
    • collected editions in Tibetan
      • classic block-printed editions
        • Peking, Yung-lo, 105+1 volumes [Grönbold does not explain what this means; maybe there's an index volume], 1410
        • Peking, Wan-li, 105+1 volumes, 1605
          • 42+1 supplementary volumes, 1606
        • Li-thaṅ/'Jaṅ sa-tham, 108, volumes, 1608-1621
        • Peking, K'ang-hsi, 105+1 volumes, 1684/1692
        • Peking, K'ang-hsi, 106+1 volumes, 1700
        • Peking, K'ang-hsi, 106+1 volumes, 1717/1720
        • Co-ne, 108 volumes, 1721-1731
        • Narthang (sNar-thaṅ), 100+1 volumes, 1730-1732
        • Derge (sDe-dge), 102+1 volumes, 1733
        • Peking, Ch'ien-lung, 1737
        • Peking, 107+1 volumes, after 1763
        • Ra-skya (Raja), Amdo, 103 volumes, c. 1810
        • Urga (Ulaanbaatar, Khu-re), 104+1 volumes, 1908-1910
        • Chab-mdo, 108 volumes, c. 1930
        • Wa-ra, 206 volumes, c. 1930; based on Derge
        • Lhasa, 99+1 volumes, 1934
      • modern reprints
        • reprint of Tog Palace manuscript, 109 volumes, Leh, 1975-1980
        • facsimile reprint of 18th-century redaction of Derge by Chos-kyi-'byuṅ-gnas, prepared under the direction of the 16th Karma-pa, 103 volumes, Delhi, 1976-1979
        • Nyingma edition of Derge under the direction of Tarthang Tulku, 36 volumes, Dharma Publishing, Oakland, California, started 1980
        • reprint of Peking edition (1717/1720, with supplements from 1737), 45 volumes, Tokyo/Kyoto, 1955-1958
    • Mongolian translation of Kanjur
      • Peking, K'ang-hsi, 108 volumes, 1717-1720
        • reprint, 108 volumes, Delhi, 1973-1979
      • Peking, Ch'ien-lung, between 1759 and 1790
    • Manchu translation of Kanjur
      • Peking, Ch'ien-lung, 108 volumes, translated 1773-1790, printed after 1790
    • the following table lists the main divisions of four major editions, as follows (publication details of the sources used do not always agree with Grönbold's listings above):
      • C Cone
      • D Derge 1729-33
      • L Lhasa 1923
      • N Narthang
Section C D L N
'Dul-ba (Vinaya) 95-107 1-13 1-13 1-13
'Bum 57-72 14-25 14-25 in Sher-phyin
Nyi-khri 73-76 26-28 26-28 ,,
Khri-brgyad 79-81 29-31 30-32 ,,
Khri-ba/Shes-khri 82 31-32 33 ,,
brGyad-stong 77 33 29 ,,
Sher-phyin (Prajñāpāramitā) 78 34 34 14-34
Phal-chen (Avataṃsaka) 89-94 35-38 41-46 35-40
dKon-tsegs (Ratnakūṭa) 83-88 39-44 35-40 41-46
mDo (Sūtra) 25-56 45-76 47-76 47-76
Myang-'das (Nirvāṇa) in mDo in mDo 77-78 in mDo
rGyud (Tantra) 1-24 77-96 79-99 77-98
gZungs-'dus (Dhāraṇī) in rGyud 97-98 in rGyud in rGyud
Dri-med-'od ? 99 ? ?
dKar-chag (catalogue/index) ? 100 100 ?
rNying-rgyud (tantras of the Nyingma school) 101-103


  • Tenjur (bsTan-'gyur): translations of other Indian texts
    • Peking, K'ang-hsi, 224+1 volumes, 1724; contents:[7]
      • 1 Stotra (hymns)
      • 2-87 Tantra commentary
      • 88-224 Sūtra commentary
        • 88-103 Prajñāpāramitā
        • 104-120 Mādhyamika
        • 121-149 Yogācāra
        • 150-157 Abhidharma
        • 158-161 miscellaneous
        • 162-177 Vinaya
        • 178-181 tales and dramas
        • 182-224 technical
          • 182-202 logic
          • 203 grammar
          • 204 lexicography and poetics
          • 205-209 medicine
          • 210 chemistry and miscellaneous
          • 211-224 supplements
    • Narthang, 223 volumes, 1741-1742
    • Derge, 212+1 volumes, 1744
    • Cone, 209 volumes, 1753-1773
    • Urga, 1937, incomplete
    • Wa-ra, c. 1945, incomplete
    • reprint of Derge, 215 volumes, Delhi, started 1982
    • reprint of Derge, Tokyo, started 1977
    • continuation of Nyingma Kanjur above, volumes 37-108; further supplements are volumes 109-117 from other editions of Kanjur and Tenjur, 7 volumes catalogue and 1 additional volume (?: Zusatzband)
    • continuation of Japanese reprint of Peking above, volumes 46-150; further supplements volume 151 dKar-chag, volumes 165-168 catalogues and index [no explanation of what happened to volumes 152-164]
    • Mongolian translation of Tenjur, Peking, Ch'ien-lung, 226 volumes, 1742-1749
  • Nyingma Gyüwum: collection of tantric texts recognized only by the Nyingma school
  • collections of works of many Tibetan teachers
  • Tibetan Sanskrit Works Series, Patna, 1953- : surviving Sanskrit originals of texts used in Tibetan Buddhism

Comments

Note that, whereas Christianity, Judaism, Islam, Theravada Buddhism, Tibetan Buddhism etc. have all produced separate collected editions of what they regard as "The Word", the collected editions published within East Asian Buddhism make little or nothing of the distinction between what is regarded as the "Word of the Buddha" and what is not; in theory this tradition recognizes such a distinction, but no one seems ever to have produced a separate collected edition of the former only; this rather suggests the East Asian tradition simply doesn't regard the distinction as important in practice. Sangharakshita's book The Eternal Legacy: an Introduction to the Canonical Literature of Buddhism defines "canonical" as meaning regarded by some branch of Buddhism as the Word of the Buddha. The late L. S. Cousins of Manchester University, in a review[8] of this book, criticizes this definition, implying that the tradition does not in practice treat this distinction as important.

Notes

  1. Nakamura, Indian Buddhism, Kansai University of Foreign Studies, Hirakata, Japan, 1980 (reprinted by Motilal, Delhi), page 24, note 10
  2. [1]
  3. Journal of the Pali Text Society, volume XXVII, pages 55-58
  4. [2]
  5. Paul Demiéville, Hubert Durt & Anna Seidel, Répertoire du canon bouddhique sino-japonais, édition de Taishō, Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres, Institut de France, 1978
  6. Catalogue of the Chinese Translation of the Buddhist Tripitaka, Clarendon, Oxford, 1883
  7. Prebish, Historical Dictionary of Buddhism
  8. Studies in Comparative Religion [Perennial Books], vol. 17 (Numbers 1 & 2, Double Issue) [1987], pages 118-20

A major source is

  • Grönbold, Günter, Der buddhistische Kanon: eine Bibliographie, Otto Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden, 1984