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- For criticism see Criticism of Thailand
|Kingdom of Thailand
Ratcha Anachak Thai
|Anthem: Phleng Chat
Royal anthem: Phleng Sansoen Phra Barami
(and largest city)
|Government||Parliamentary democracy and Constitutional monarchy|
|-||Prime Minister||Abhisit Vejjajiva|
|-||Constitutional Monarchy||24 June 1932|
|-||Later Constitution||24 August|
|-||Total||513,115 km2 (49th)
198,115 sq mi
|-||Water (%)||0.4 (2,230 km2)|
|-||December estimate||63,038,247 (20th)|
|-||Total||$570,100 billion[cn] (24th)|
|-||Per capita||$8,700[cn] (83rd)|
|-||Total||$272,100 billion[cn] (35th)|
|-||Per capita||$4,155[cn] (98nd)|
|HDI||0.786 (medium) ([[List of countries by Human Development Index|81st]])|
|Currency||Baht (Thai: à¸šà¸²à¸—; Symbol: à¸¿) (
|1||^ Thai name: Krung Thep Maha Nakhon or Krung Thep The full name is "Krung Thep Mahanakhon Amon Rattanakosin Mahinthara Yuthaya Mahadilok Phop Noppharat Ratchathani Burirom Udomratchaniwet Mahasathan Amon Piman Awatan Sathit Sakkathattiya Witsanukam Prasit."|
|2||^ According to the Department of Provincial Administration's official register, not taking into account unregistered citizens and immigrants.|
The Kingdom of Thailand (IPA: /ËˆtaÉªlÃ¦nd/, Thai: à¸£à¸²à¸Šà¸à¸²à¸“à¸²à¸ˆà¸±à¸à¸£à¹„à¸—à¸¢ (help·info), IPA: [rÃ¢ËtÉ•Ê°a-Ê”aËnaËtÉ•É‘̀k-tÊ°É‘j]) is an independent country that lies in the heart of Southeast Asia. It is bordered to the north by Laos and Myanmar, to the east by Laos and Cambodia, to the south by the Gulf of Thailand and Malaysia, and to the west by the Andaman Sea and Myanmar. By the maritime boundary, the country is bordered to the southeast by Vietnam in the Gulf of Thailand, to the southwest by Indonesia and India in the Andaman Sea.
The capital and largest city of Thailand is Bangkok. It is also the country's center of political, commercial, industrial and cultural activities. Krung Thep Mahanakhon Amon Rattanakosin Mahinthara Ayuthaya Mahadilok Phop Noppharat Ratchathani Burirom Udomratchaniwet Mahasathan Amon Piman Awatan Sathit Sakkathattiya Witsanukam Prasit is known in Thai as "Krung Thep Mahanakorn," or, more colloquially, "Krung Thep", meaning "City of Angels". Outside of Thailand, the city is known throughout the world as Bangkok.
Thailand is the world's 51st-largest country in terms of total area, roughly equal in size to Spain, with a surface area of approximately 513,000 km2 (198,000 sq mi), and the 20th most-populous country, with approximately 63 million people. About 75% of the population is ethnically Thais, 14% is of Chinese origin, and 3% is ethnically Malay, the rest belong to minority groups including Mons, Khmers, and various hill tribes. The country's official language is Thai.
Thailand is one of the most devoutly Buddhist countries in the world. The national religion is Theravada Buddhism which is practiced by more than 95% of all Thais. The cultures and traditions in Thailand are significantly influenced by those of India, China and many western countries.
Thailand is a constitutional monarchy with King Bhumibol Adulyadej, the ninth king of the House of Chakri, as the ruling monarch. The King has reigned for more than half a century, making him the longest reigning Thai monarch and the longest reigning current monarch in the world. The King is recognized as the Head of State, the Head of the Armed Forces, the Upholder of the Buddhist religion, and Defender of the Faith. Thailand is the only country in Southeast Asia that has never been ruled by a European power. However, during the Second World War, and while claiming neutrality, Thailand was occupied by the armed forces of the Empire of Japan who built the infamous 'Death Railway' using captured Allied Prisoners of War and slave Asian labourers.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 3 Politics and government
- 4 Military
- 5 Education
- 6 Administrative divisions
- 7 Law enforcement in Thailand
- 8 Geography
- 9 Economy
- 10 Demographics
- 11 Culture
- 12 International rankings
- 13 Sport
- 14 See also
- 15 References
- 16 External links
The country's official name was Siam (Thai: à¸ªà¸¢à¸²à¸¡; IPA: [saËˆjaËm], RTGS: Sayam) until June 23, 1939, when it was changed to Thailand. It was renamed Siam from to May 11, 1949, after which it was again renamed Thailand. Also spelled Siem, SyÃ¢m or SyÃ¢ma, it has been identified with the Sanskrit ÅšyÃ¢ma (à¤¶à¥à¤¯à¤¾à¤®, meaning "dark" or "brown"). But the names Shan and A-hom seem to be variants of the same word, and ÅšyÃ¢ma is possibly not its origin but a learned and artificial distortion.
The word Thai (à¹„à¸—à¸¢) is not, as commonly believed, derived from the word Tai (à¹„à¸—) meaning "free" in the Thai language; it is, however, the name of an ethnic group from the central plains (the Thai people).[cn] A famous Thai scholar argued that Tai (à¹„à¸—) simply means "people" or "human being" since his investigation shows that in some rural areas the word "Tai" was used instead of the usual Thai word "khon" (à¸„à¸™) for people. The phrase "Land of the free" is derived from the fact that the Thai are proud of the fact that Thailand is the only country in Southeast Asia never colonized by a European power.
Ratcha Anachak Thai (Thai: à¸£à¸²à¸Šà¸à¸²à¸“à¸²à¸ˆà¸±à¸à¸£à¹„à¸—à¸¢) means "Kingdom of Thailand" or "Kingdom of Thai." Etymologically, its components are: -Ratcha- (from Sanskrit raja, meaning "king, royal, realm,") ; -ana- (from PÄli Äá¹‡Ä, "authority, command, power," itself from Sanskrit ÄjÃ±Ä, same meaning) -chak (from Sanskrit cakra or cakraá¹ƒ meaning "wheel", a symbol of power and rule).
The region known as Thailand has been inhabited by humans since the paleolithic period, about 10,000 years ago. Prior to the fall of the Khmer Empire in the 13th century, various states thrived there, such as the various Tai, Mon, Khmer and Malay kingdoms, as seen through the numerous archaeological sites and artifacts that are scattered throughout the Siamese landscape. Prior to the 12th century however, the first Thai or Siamese state is traditionally considered to be the Buddhist kingdom of Sukhothai, which was founded in 1238.
Following the decline and fall of the Khmer empire in the 13th - 14th century, the Buddhist Tai Kingdoms of Sukhothai, Lanna and Lan Chang were on the ascension. However, a century later, Sukhothai's power was overshadowed by the new kingdom of Ayutthaya, established in the mid-14th century.
After the fall of the Ayutthaya in 1767 to the Burmese, King Taksin the Great moved the capital of Thailand to Thonburi for approximately 15 years. The current Rattanakosin era of Thai history began in 1782, following the establishment of Bangkok as capital of the Chakri dynasty under King Rama I the Great.
Thailand retains a tradition of trade with its neighboring states, and the cultures of the Indian ocean and the South China sea. European trade and influence arrived to Thailand in the 16th century, beginning with the Portuguese. Despite European pressure, Thailand is the only Southeast Asian nation that has never been colonised. Two main reasons for this were that Thailand had a long succession of very able rulers in the 1800s and that it was able to exploit the rivalry and tension between the French and the British. As a result, the country remained as a buffer state between parts of Southeast Asia that were colonized by the two colonial powers. Despite this, Western influence led to many reforms in the 19th century and major concessions, most notably being the loss of large territory on the east side of the Mekong to the French and the step by step absorption by Britain of the Shan (Thai Yai) States (now in Burma) and the Malay Peninsula. The loss initially included Penang and Tumasik and eventually culminated in the loss of four predominantly ethnic-Malay southern provinces, which later became Malaysia's four northern states, under the Anglo-Siamese Treaty of 1909.
In 1932, a bloodless revolution resulted in a new constitutional monarchy. During World War II, the Empire of Japan demanded the right to move troops across Thailand to the Malayan frontier. Japan invaded the country and engaged the Thai army for six to eight hours before Phibunsongkhram ordered an armistice. Shortly thereafter Japan was granted free passage, and on December 21, 1941, Thailand and Japan signed a military alliance with a secret protocol wherein Tokyo agreed to help Thailand regain territories lost to the British and French. Subsequently, Thailand undertook to 'assist' Japan in its war against the Allies, while at the same time maintaining an active anti-Japanese resistance movement known as the Seri Thai. After the war, Thailand emerged as an ally of the United States. As with many of the developing nations during the Cold War, Thailand then went through decades of political transgression characterised by coups d'Ã©tat as one military regime replaced another, but eventually progressed towards a stable prosperity and democracy in the 1980s.
In 1997, Thailand was hit with the Asian financial crisis and the Thai baht for a short time peaked at 56 baht to the US dollar compared to about 25 baht to the dollar before 1997. Since then, the baht has regained most of its strength and as of 26 December is valued at 34.71 baht to the US dollar.
The official calendar in Thailand is based on Eastern version of the Buddhist Era, which is 543 years ahead of the Gregorian (western) calendar. For example, the year AD is called 2551 BE in Thailand.
- It was the opinion of a Wikipedia editor that this section of the article was one-sided.
Malay Peninsula was once known as Tanah Melayu (Malay Land). It extends from Singapore to the Ithsmus of Kra bordering Burma, Thailand and Malay Land. Phuket is Bukit (hill) in Malay, "Satun" is "Setol" (a tropical fruit) was the Province of "Kedah" under the Malay Sultanate and Patani (Land of Farmers) was also part of the Malay Sultanate. In these areas people once spoke both Malay as well as Sam-sam, a local version of the Siamese language. The majority of residents were Muslims. Thailand tried to dominate the Peninsula as far as Malacca in the 1400s but failed.
The Northern states of the Malay Sultanate presented gift to the Thai King in the form of a golden flower in every 3 years, who looked on this as a form of tribute. The British intervened in the Malay State and with the Anglo-Siamese Treaty tried to build a railway from the south to Bangkok, Thailand relinquished sovereignty over what are now the northern Malay provinces of Kedah, Pelis, and Kelantan to the British. Kedah provinces and Patani were given to Thailand.
The Malay Peninsula provinces were infiltrated by the Japanese in the World War II in and also by the Malayan Communist Party (CPM) from to decided to sign for peace with the Malaysian and Thai Governments after the CPM lost its support from Vietnam and China after the Cultural Revolution.
Recent insurgent uprisings are a continuation of separatist fighting which started after World War II with Sukarno's support for the PULO and has intensified with US President Bush's initiation of the War on Terror. Since the uprisings, most victims have been Buddhist and Muslim bystanders.
Politics and government
Since the political reform of the absolute monarchy in 1932, Thailand has had 17 constitutions and charters. Throughout this time, the form of government has ranged from military dictatorship to electoral democracy, but all governments have acknowledged a hereditary monarch as the head of state.
- See also: 1997 Constitution of Thailand
The Constitution was the first constitution to be drafted by popularly-elected Constitutional Drafting Assembly, and was popularly called the "People's Constitution."
The Constitution created a bicameral legislature consisting of a 500-seat House of Representatives (à¸ªà¸ à¸²à¸œà¸¹à¹‰à¹à¸—à¸™à¸£à¸²à¸©à¸Žà¸£, sapha phutan ratsadon) and a 200-seat Senate (à¸§à¸¸à¸’à¸´à¸ªà¸ à¸², wuthisapha). For the first time in Thai history, both houses were directly elected. Many human rights are explicitly acknowledged, and measures were established to increase the stability of elected governments. The House was elected by the first-past-the-post system, where only one candidate with a simple majority could be elected in one constituency. The Senate was elected based on the province system, where one province can return more than one Senator depending on its population size. Members of the House of Representatives served four-year terms, while Senators served six-year terms.
The court system (à¸¨à¸²à¸¥, saan) included a constitutional court with jurisdiction over the constitutionality of parliamentary acts, royal decrees, and political matters.
The January general election, the first election under the Constitution, was called the most open, corruption-free election in Thai history. The subsequent government was the first in Thai history to complete a 4-year term. The election had the highest voter turnout in Thai history.. Despite efforts to clean up the system, vote buying and electoral violence remained problems of electoral quality in. The PollWatch Foundation, Thailand's most prominent election watchdog, declared that vote buying in this election, specifically in the North and the Northeast, was more serious than in the election. The organization also accused the government of violating the election law by abusing state power in presenting new projects in a bid to seek votes.
In early significant pressure from corruption allegations led Thaksin Shinawatra to call for a snap election. The opposition boycotted the elections because the election date was uncommonly scheduled very early and gave advantages to Thaksin's political party, which was still in power. Thaksin was re-elected but was also declared to be null by the Thai court of law due to vote-buying allegations. Pressure continued to build as Thaksin refused to step down from the interim position, leading to a military coup on 19 September.
After the coup
- See also: Thai coup d'Ã©tat
Without meeting much resistance, a military junta overthrew the interim government of Thaksin Shinawatra on 19 September . The junta abrogated the constitution, dissolved Parliament and the Constitutional Court, detained and later removed several members of the government, declared martial law, and appointed one of the King's Privy Counselors, General Surayud Chulanont, as the Prime Minister. The junta later wrote a highly abbreviated interim constitution and appointed a panel to draft a permanent constitution. The junta also appointed a 250-member legislature, called by some critics a "chamber of generals" while others claimed that it lacks representatives from the poor majority. In this interim constitution draft, the head of the junta was allowed to remove the Prime Minister at any time. The legislature was not allowed to hold a vote of confidence against the Cabinet and the public was not allowed to file comments on bills. This interim constitution was later surpassed by the permanent constitution on 24 August.
Martial law was partially revoked in January. The ban on political activities was lifted in July following the 30 May dissolution of the Thai Rak Thai party. The new constitution has been approved by a referendum on 19 August, which led to a return to democratic elections on 23 December.
The People's Power Party (Thailand), led by Samak Sundaravej formed a government with five smaller parties. Following several court rulings against him in a variety of scandals, and surviving a vote of no confidence, and protesters blockading government buildings and airports, in September Sundaravej was removed from office by the Constitutional Court of Thailand. He was replaced by PPP member Somchai Wongsawat. As of October Wongsawat was unable to access his offices, which were occupied by protesters from the People's Alliance for Democracy. On December 2, Thailand's Constitutional Court banned the ruling Peoples Power Party.After defections from smaller parties the opposition Democrats Party was able to form a government, a first for the party since. The leader of the Democrat party, and former Leader of the Opposition, Abhisit Vejjajiva was appointed and sworn-in as the 27th Prime Minister, together with the new Cabinet on the 17 December.
Thailand remains an active member of the regional Association of South-East Asian Nations.
- Royal Thai Army (à¸à¸à¸‡à¸—à¸±à¸žà¸šà¸à¹„à¸—à¸¢)
- Royal Thai Navy (à¸à¸à¸‡à¸—à¸±à¸žà¹€à¸£à¸·à¸à¹„à¸—à¸¢, à¸£à¸²à¸Šà¸™à¸²à¸§à¸µà¹„à¸—à¸¢)
- Royal Thai Marine Corps (à¸™à¸²à¸§à¸´à¸à¹‚à¸¢à¸˜à¸´à¸™à¹„à¸—à¸¢)
- Royal Thai Air Force (à¸à¸à¸‡à¸—à¸±à¸žà¸à¸²à¸à¸²à¸¨à¹„à¸—à¸¢)
- Other Paramilitary Forces
Today the Royal Thai Armed Forces comprises about 306,600 personnel. The Head of the Thai Armed Forces (à¸ˆà¸à¸¡à¸—à¸±à¸žà¹„à¸—à¸¢: Chomthap Thai) is His Majesty King Bhumibol Adulyadej (Rama IX), however this position is only nominal. The Armed Forces is managed by the Ministry of Defence of Thailand, which is headed by the Minister of Defence (a member of the Cabinet of Thailand) and commanded by the Royal Thai Armed Forces Headquarters, which in turn is headed by the Chief of Defence Forces of Thailand.
According to the Constitution of the Kingdom, serving in the Armed Forces is a duty of all Thai citizens. However only males over the age of 21, who has not gone through reserve training are subjected to a random draft. Those chosen randomly are subjected to twenty-four months fulltime service. While volunteers are subjected to eighteen months service, depending on their education.
Thailand enjoys a high level of literacy, and education is provided by a well organized school system of kindergartens, primary, lower secondary and upper secondary schools, numerous vocational colleges, and universities. The private sector of education is well developed and significantly contributes to the overall provision of education which the government would not be able to meet through the public establishments. Education is compulsory up to and including Grade 9, and the government provides free education through to Grade 12.
Thailand has never been colonized, and its educational system is not based on European models to any great extent. Education in a modern sense is relatively recent and, according to some sources, still needs to overcome some major cultural hurdles in order to ensure further development and improvement to its standards, which in some respects have fallen to the lowest levels in southeast Asia.
The establishment of reliable and coherent curricula for its primary and secondary schools is subject to such rapid changes that schools and their teachers are not always sure what they are supposed to be teaching, and authors and publishers of textbooks are unable to write and print new editions quickly enough to keep up with the volatile situation. The issue concerning university entrance has therefore also been in constant upheaval for a number of years. Nevertheless, education has seen its greatest progress in the years since most of the present generation of pupils and students are computer literate, and knowledge of English is on the increase at least in quantity if not in quality.
Thailand is divided into 75 provinces (à¸ˆà¸±à¸‡à¸«à¸§à¸±à¸”, changwat) , which are gathered into 5 groups of provinces by location. There are also 2 special governed districts: the capital Bangkok (Krung Thep Maha Nakhon) and Pattaya, of which Bangkok is at provincial level and thus often counted as a 76th province.
Each province is divided into districts and the districts are further divided into sub-districts (tambons). As of there are 877 districts (à¸à¸³à¹€à¸ à¸, amphoe) and the 50 districts of Bangkok (à¹€à¸‚à¸•, khet). Some parts of the provinces bordering Bangkok are also referred to as Greater Bangkok (à¸›à¸£à¸´à¸¡à¸“à¸‘à¸¥, pari monthon). These provinces include Nonthaburi, Pathum Thani, Samut Prakan, Nakhon Pathom and Samut Sakhon. The name of each province's capital city (à¹€à¸¡à¸·à¸à¸‡, mueang) is the same as that of the province: for example, the capital of Chiang Mai province (changwat Chiang Mai) is Mueang Chiang Mai or Chiang Mai. The 75 provinces are as follows:
- Ang Thong
- Bangkok (Krung Thep Maha Nakhon), Special Governed District of
- Chai Nat
- Nakhon Nayok
- Nakhon Pathom
- Pathum Thani
- Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya
- Prachuap Khiri Khan
- Samut Prakan
- Samut Sakhon
- Samut Songkhram
- Sing Buri
- Suphan Buri
- Chiang Mai
- Chiang Rai
- Kamphaeng Phet
- Mae Hong Son
- Nakhon Sawan
- Uthai Thani
- Amnat Charoen
- Buri Ram
- Khon Kaen
- Maha Sarakham
- Nakhon Phanom
- Nakhon Ratchasima
- Nong Bua Lamphu
- Nong Khai
- Roi Et
- Sakon Nakhon
- Si Sa Ket
- Ubon Ratchathani
- Udon Thani
- Nakhon Si Thammarat
- Phang Nga
- Surat Thani
- Bangkok Metropolitan Area - 10,100,964
- Pattaya-Chonburi Metropolitan Area - 971,556
- Chiang Mai Metropolitan Area - 960,906
- Greater Hatyai-Songkhla Metropolitan Area - 801,747
- Nakhon Ratchasima Metropolitan Area - 439,546
NOTE: In italics , that province represents the Greater Bangkok sub-region; in italics , that province represents the West sub-region.
Law enforcement in Thailand
- For maps, see: Atlas of Thailand
At 514,000 km2 (198,000 sq mi), Thailand is the world's 50th largest country in land mass, whilst it is the world's 20th largest country in terms of population. It is comparable in population to countries such as France and United Kingdom, and is similar in land size to France and California in the US; it is just over twice the size of the entire United Kingdom, and 1.4 times the size of Germany.
Thailand is home to several distinct geographic regions, partly corresponding to the provincial groups. The north of the country is mountainous, with the highest point being Doi Inthanon at 2,565 metres above sea level (8,415 ft). The northeast, Isan, (see special section on this region) consists of the Khorat Plateau, bordered to the east by the Mekong river. The centre of the country is dominated by the predominantly flat Chao Phraya river valley, which runs into the Gulf of Thailand. The south consists of the narrow Kra Isthmus that widens into the Malay Peninsula.
The local climate is tropical and characterized by monsoons. There is a rainy, warm, and cloudy southwest monsoon from mid-May to September, as well as a dry, cool northeast monsoon from November to mid-March. The southern isthmus is always hot and humid. Major cities beside the capital Bangkok include Nakhon Ratchasima, Khon Kaen, Udon Thani, Ubon Ratchathani, Nakhon Sawan, Chiang Mai, Phitsanulok, Surat Thani, Phuket and Hat Yai.
Thailand is an emerging economy and considered as a Newly Industrialized Country. After enjoying the world's highest growth rate from to 1996[cn] - averaging 9.4% annually - increased pressure on Thailand's currency, the baht, in 1997, the year in which the economy contracted by 1.9% led to a crisis that uncovered financial sector weaknesses and forced the Chavalit Yongchaiyudh administration to float the currency, however, Prime Minister Chavalit Yongchaiyudh was forced to resign after his cabinet came under fire for its slow response to the crisis. The Baht was pegged at 25 to the US dollar from to 1997, however, the baht reached its lowest point of 56 to the US dollar in January and the economy contracted by 10.8% that year. This collapse prompted the Asian financial crisis.
Thailand's economy started to recover in 1999, expanding 4.2% and 4.4% in largely due to strong exports. Growth (2.2%) was dampened by the softening of the global economy in but picked up in the subsequent years due to strong growth in Asia, a relatively weak baht encouraging exports and increasing domestic spending as a result of several mega projects and incentives of Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra, known as Thaksinomics. Growth in and was 5-7% annually. Growth in and hovered around 4-5% Due both to the weakening of the US dollar and an increasingly strong Thai currency, by March the dollar was hovering around the 33 baht mark.
Thailand exports an increasing value of over $105 billion worth of goods and services annually. Major exports include Thai rice, textiles and footwear, fishery products, rubber, jewelry, automobiles, computers and electrical appliances. Thailand is the worldâ€™s no.1 exporter of rice, exporting more than 6.5 million tons of milled rice annually. Rice is the most important crop in the country. Thailand has the highest percent of arable land, 27.25%, of any nation in the Greater Mekong Subregion. About 55% of the available land area is used for rice production.
Substantial industries include electric appliances, components, computer parts and automobiles, while tourism makes up about 6% of the Thai economy.
Thailand uses the metric system but traditional units of measurement and imperial measure (feet, inches) are still much in use, particularly for agriculture and building materials. Years are numbered as B.E. (Buddhist Era) in education, the civil service, government, and on contracts and newspaper datelines; in banking, however, and increasingly in industry and commerce, standard Western year (Christian or Common Era) counting prevails.
The official language of Thailand is the Thai language, a Kradai language closely related to Lao, Shan in Burma, and numerous smaller languages spoken in an arc from Hainan and Yunan south to the Malaysian border. It is the principal language of education and government and spoken throughout the country. The standard is based on the dialect of the Central Thai people, and it is written in the Thai alphabet, an abugida script that evolved from the Khmer script. Several other dialects exist, and coincide with the regional designations. Southern Thai is spoken in the southern provinces, and Northern Thai is spoken in the provinces that were formally part of the independent kingdom of Lannathai.
Thailand is also host to several other minority languages, the largest of which is the Lao dialect of Isan spoken in the northeastern provinces. Although sometimes considered a Thai dialect, it is a Lao dialect, and the region in where it is traditionally spoken was historically part of the Lao kingdom of Lan Xang. In the far south, Yawi, a dialect of Malay, is the primary language of the Malay Muslims. Chinese dialects are also spoken by the large Chinese population, Teochew being the dialect best represented.
Numerous tribal languages are also spoken, including those belonging to the Mon-Khmer family, such as Mon, Khmer, Viet, Mlabri; Austronesian family, such as Cham, Moken, and Orang Asli, Sino-Tibetan family such as Hmong, Lawa, Akhan, and Karen; and other Tai languages such as Nyaw, Phu Thai, and Saek.
English is a mandatory school subject, but the number of fluent speakers remains very low, especially outside the cities.
According to the last census 94.7% of the total population are Buddhists of the Theravada tradition. Muslims are the second largest religious group in Thailand at 4.6%. Thailand's southernmost provinces - Pattani, Yala, Narathiwat and part of Songkhla Chumphon have dominant Muslim populations, consisting of both ethnic Thai and Malay. Most often Muslims live in separate communities from non-Muslims. The southern tip of Thailand is mostly ethnically Malay, and most Malays are Sunni Muslims. Christians, mainly Catholics, represent 0.75% of the population. A tiny but influential community of Sikhs in Thailand and some Hindus also live in the country's cities, and are heavily engaged in retail commerce. There is also a small Jewish community in Thailand, dating back to the 17th century. Since Muslim activists, generally described by the Thai government as terrorists or separatists, have rallied against the central government because of alleged corruption and ethnic bias on the part of officials.
The culture of Thailand incorporates a great deal of influence from India, China, Cambodia, and the rest of Southeast Asia. Thailand's main theology Theravada Buddhism is central to modern Thai identity and belief. In practice, Thai Buddhism has evolved over time to include many regional beliefs originating from Hinduism, animism as well as ancestor worship. In areas in the southernmost parts of Thailand, Islam is prevalent. Several different ethnic groups, many of which are marginalized, populate Thailand. Some of these groups overlap into Burma, Laos, Cambodia, and Malaysia and have maintained a distinctly traditional way of life despite strong Thai cultural influence. Overseas Chinese also form a significant part of Thai society, particularly in and around Bangkok. Their successful integration into Thai society has allowed for this group to hold positions of economic and political power.
Like most Asian cultures, respect towards ancestors is an essential part of Thai spiritual practice. Thais have a strong sense of hospitality and generosity, but also a strong sense of social hierarchy. Seniority is an important concept in Thai culture. Elders have by tradition ruled in family decisions or ceremonies.
The traditional Thai greeting, the wai, is generally offered first by the youngest of the two people meeting, with their hands pressed together, fingertips pointing upwards as the head is bowed to touch their face to the hands, usually coinciding with the spoken word "Sawat-dii khrap" for male speakers, and "Sawat-dii ka" for females. The elder then is to respond afterwards in the same way. Social status and position, such as in government, will also have an influence on who performs the wai first. For example, although one may be considerably older than a provincial governor, when meeting it is usually the visitor who pays respect first. When children leave to go to school, they are taught to wai to their parents to represent their respect for them. They do the same when they come back. The wai is a sign of respect and reverence for another, similar to the namaste greeting of India.
Muay Thai, or Thai boxing, is the national sport in Thailand and its native martial art call "Muay." In the past "Muay" was taught to Royal soldiers for combat on battlefield if unarmed. After they retired from the army, these soldiers often became Buddhist monks and stayed at the temples. Most of the Thai people's lives are closely tied to Buddhism and temples; they often send their sons to be educated with the monks. â€Muayâ€ is also one of the subjects taught in the temples.
Muay Thai achieved popularity all over the world in the 1990s. Although similar martial arts styles exist in other southeast Asian countries, few enjoy the recognition that Muay Thai has received with its full-contact rules allowing strikes including elbows, throws and knees. This is due to Thailand's economic standing in the world while other nation such as Cambodia, Laos and Burma are listed as the world's Least Developed Countries by the UN. Association football, however, has possibly overtaken Muay Thai's position as most widely viewed and liked sport in contemporary Thai society and it is not uncommon to see Thais cheering their favourite English Premier League teams on television and walking around in replica kits. Another widely enjoyed pastime, and once a competitive sport, is kite flying.
Taboos in Thailand include touching someone's head or pointing with the feet, as the head is considered the most sacred and the foot the dirtiest part of the body. Stepping over someone, or over food, is considered insulting. However, Thai culture as in many other Asian cultures, is succumbing to the influence of globalization with some of the traditional taboos slowly fading away with time.
Books and other documents are the most revered of secular objects. One should not slide a book across a table or place it on the floor.[cn]
Thai cuisine blends five fundamental tastes: sweet, spicy, sour, bitter and salty. Some common ingredients used in Thai cuisine include garlic, chillies, lime juice, lemon grass, and fish sauce. The staple food in Thailand is rice, particularly jasmine variety rice (also known as Hom Mali rice) which is included in almost every meal. Thailand is the world's largest exporter of rice, and Thais domestically consume over 100 kg of milled rice per person per year. Over 5000 varieties of rice from Thailand are preserved in the rice gene bank of the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), based in the Philippines. The King of Thailand is the official patron of IRRI.
Thai society has been influenced in recent years by its widely-available multi-language press and media. There are numerous English, Thai and Chinese newspapers in circulation; most Thai popular magazines use English headlines as a chic glamor factor. Most large businesses in Bangkok operate in English as well as other languages. Thailand is the largest newspaper market in South East Asia with an estimated circulation of at least 13 million copies daily in. Even upcountry, out of Bangkok, media flourishes. For example, according to Thailand's Public Relations Department Media Directory, the nineteen provinces of northeast Thailand themselves hosted 116 newspapers in addition to radio, TV and cable.
|Heritage Foundation||Indices of Economic Freedom||50 out of 157|
|Reporters Without Borders||Worldwide Press Freedom Index||134 out of 169|
|Transparency International||Corruption Perceptions Index||84 out of 179|
|United Nations Development Programme||Human Development Index||78 out of 177|
|World Economic Forum||Global Competitiveness Report||34 out of 125|
Muay Thai (Thai: à¸¡à¸§à¸¢à¹„à¸—à¸¢, RTGS: Muai Thai, IPA: [muÉ›j tÊ°É‘j], lit. Thai Boxing) is a form of hard martial art practiced in large parts of the world, including Thailand and other Southeast Asian countries. The art is similar to others in Southeast Asia such as: pradal serey in Cambodia, lethwei in Myanmar, tomoi in Malaysia, and Lao boxing in Laos. Muay Thai has a long history in Thailand and is the country's national sport.
Traditional Muay Thai practiced today varies significantly from the ancient art muay boran and uses kicks and punches in a ring with gloves similar to those used in Western boxing and this has led to Thailand gaining medals at the Olympic Games in Boxing.
Other sports in Thailand are slowly growing as the country develops it's sporting infrastructure, the success in sports like weightlifting and Taekwondo at the last two Summer Olympic Games has shown that Boxing is no longer the only medal chance for Thailand.
Rugby is also a growing sport in Thailand with the Thailand national rugby union team rising to be ranked 61st in the world. Thailand became the first country in the world to host an international 80kg welterweight rugby tournament in. The national domestic Thailand Rugby Union (TRU) competition includes several universities and services teams such as Chulalongkorn University, Mahasarakham University, Kasetsart University, Prince of Songkla University, Thammasat University, Rangsit University, the Thai Police, the Thai Army, the Thai Navy and the Royal Thai Air Force. Local sports clubs which also compete in the TRU include the British Club of Bangkok, the Southerners Sports Club (Bangkok) and the Royal Bangkok Sports Club.
- Thailand at the Olympics
- Thai national football team
- Thailand national beach soccer team
- Category:Sports venues in Thailand
- Thai Temple Art and Architecture
- Category:Thai Buddhist temples
- Buddhism in Thailand
- Category:Thai Buddhist temples outside of Thailand
- Tourism in Thailand
- Population and Housing Census National Statistical Office
- CIA World Factbook Thailand, CIA World Factbook.
- , National Statistic Office of Thailand.
- Thailand (Siam) History, CSMngt-Thai.
- Eliot, Charles (1921). The Project Gutenberg EBook of Hinduism and Buddhism, An Historical Sketch, Vol. 3 (of 3) [EBook #16847]. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd.. pp. Ch. xxxvii 1; citing in turn Footnote 189: The name is found on Champan inscriptions of 1050 A.D. and according to Gerini appears in Ptolemy's Samarade = SÃ¢maraá¹á¹ha. See Gerini, Ptolemy, p. 170. But Samarade is located near Bangkok and there can hardly have been Tais there in Ptolemy's time; and Footnote 190: So too in Central Asia Kustana appears to be a learned distortion of the name Khotan, made to give it a meaning in Sanskrit..
- à¸ˆà¸´à¸•à¸£ à¸ à¸¹à¸¡à¸´à¸¨à¸±à¸à¸”à¸´à¹Œ 1976: "à¸„à¸§à¸²à¸¡à¹€à¸›à¹‡à¸™à¸¡à¸²à¸‚à¸à¸‡à¸„à¸³à¸ªà¸¢à¸²à¸¡ à¹„à¸—à¸¢ à¸¥à¸²à¸§à¹à¸¥à¸°à¸‚à¸à¸¡ à¹à¸¥à¸°à¸¥à¸±à¸à¸©à¸“à¸°à¸—à¸²à¸‡à¸ªà¸±à¸‡à¸„à¸¡ à¸‚à¸à¸‡à¸Šà¸·à¹ˆà¸à¸Šà¸™à¸Šà¸²à¸•à¸´" (Jid Phumisak 1976: "Coming Into Existence for the Siamese Words for Thai, Laotian and Khmer and Societal Characteristics for Nation-names")
- The Council of State, Constitutions of Thailand. This list contains 2 errors: it states that the 6th constitution was promulgated in (rather than 1952) , and it states that the 11th constitution was promulgated in (rather than 1974).
- Thanet Aphornsuvan, PDF (152 KiB), Symposium: Constitutions and Human Rights in a Global Age: An Asia Pacific perspective
- A list of previous coups in Thailand
- A list of recent coups in Thailand's history
- Kittipong Kittayarak, PDF (221 KiB)
- Robert B. Albritton and Thawilwadee Bureekul, PDF (319 KiB), National Taiwan University and Academia Sinica Asian Barometer Project Office Working Paper Series No. 28,
- Pongsudhirak Thitinan, "Victory places Thaksin at crossroads," Bangkok Post, 9 February
- "Unprecedented 72% turnout for latest poll". The Nation. 10 February.
- Aurel Croissant and Daniel J. Pojar, Jr., Quo Vadis Thailand? Thai Politics after the Parliamentary Election, Strategic Insights, Volume IV, Issue 6 (June)
- The Nation, NLA 'doesn't represent' all of the people, 14 October
- The Nation, Assembly will not play a major role, 14 October
- The Nation, Interim charter draft, 27 September
- "Ban on political activities lifted". The Nation. 18 July.
-  Spiegel Online, December 2,
- CIA world factbook - Thailand
- CIA world factbook - Greater Mekong Subregion
- IRRI country profile
- Weights and measures in Thailand
- "CIA World Factbook: Thailand". Central Intelligence Agency. -2-8.
- U.S. Department of States - Thailand
- Muay Thai History
- PDF (38.7 KiB)
- The Nation, , 19 July
- Thaigov.go.th Royal Government of Thailand
- Thai National Assembly Official Thai Parliament website
- Chief of State and Cabinet Members
- Mfa.go.th Thailand Ministry of Foreign Affairs
- Thailand Internet Information National Electronics and Computer Technology Center
- General information
- Thailand entry at The World Factbook
- Thailand from UCB Libraries GovPubs
- Thailand at the Open Directory Project
- Wikimedia Atlas of Thailand
- Tourism Authority of Thailand Official tourism website
- Thailand travel guide
- Thailand Travel Dictionary Non-commercial information site
- Longdo Map Thailand On-line Thailand map
- Thailand Travel Guide
- No.1 Meta Search Engine in Thailand
- Flickr: Photos tagged with "Thailand"
- Birdwatching in Thailand
- Learn Thai Culture
- Thailand Country Fact Sheet from the Common Language Project
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