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(Arabic: البحرين, al-Baḥrayn) (Persian: بحرين, Baḥrain), officially the Kingdom of Bahrain (Arabic: مملكة البحرين, ), is a small island state near the western shores of the Persian Gulf. It is ruled by the Al Khalifa royal family. The population in stood at 1,234,571, including 666,172 non-nationals. Formerly an emirate, Bahrain was declared a kingdom in.
Bahrain is an archipelago of 33 islands, the largest being Bahrain Island, at 55 km (34 mi) long by 18 km (11 mi) wide. Saudi Arabia lies to the west and is connected to Bahrain by the King Fahd Causeway. The peninsula of Qatar is to the southeast across the Gulf of Bahrain. The planned Qatar Bahrain Causeway will link Bahrain and Qatar and become the world's longest marine causeway.
Known for its oil and pearls, Bahrain is also home to many large structures, including the Bahrain World Trade Center and the Bahrain Financial Harbour, with a proposal in place to build the 1,022 m (3,353 ft) high Murjan Tower. The Qal'at al-Bahrain (the harbour and capital of the ancient land of Dilmun) was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in. The Bahrain Formula One Grand Prix takes place at the Bahrain International Circuit.
Since the government of Bahrain has faced a series of massive demonstrations, amounting to a sustained campaign of civil unrest, also known as the 2011–Bahraini uprising, and has faced widespread criticism for its crackdown on protestors which has resulted in thousands of casualties.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 3 Politics
- 4 Governorates
- 5 Economy
- 6 Geography
- 7 Climate
- 8 Demographics
- 9 Culture
- 10 Military
- 11 Education
- 12 Tourism
- 13 See also
- 14 References
- 15 External links
In Arabic, bahrayn is the dual form of bahr ("sea"), so al-Bahrayn means "the Two Seas". However, which two seas were originally intended remains in dispute. The term appears five times in the Qur'an, but does not refer to the modern island — originally known to the Arabs as "Awal" — but rather to the oases of al-Katif and Hadjar (modern al-Hasa). It is unclear when the term began to refer exclusively to the Awal islands, but it was probably after the 15th century.
Today, al-Hasa belongs to Saudi Arabia and Bahrain's "two seas" are instead generally taken to be the bay east and west of the island, the seas north and south of the island,[cn] or the salt and fresh water present above and below the ground. In addition to wells, there are places in the sea north of Bahrain where fresh water bubbles up in the middle of the salt water, noted by visitors since antiquity.
An alternate theory offered by al-Ahsa was that the two seas were the Great Green Ocean and a peaceful lake on the mainland; still another provided by al-Jawahari is that the more formal name Bahri (lit. "belonging to the sea") would have been misunderstood and so was opted against.
Inhabited since ancient times, Bahrain occupies a strategic location in the Persian Gulf. It is the best natural port between the mouth of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers and Oman, a source of copper in ancient times. Bahrain may have been associated with Dilmun, an important Bronze age trade centre linking Mesopotamia and the Indus Valley. It has been ruled by the Assyrians,[cn] Babylonians,[cn] Persians, and then Arabs, under whom the island became first Christian and then Islamic.
From the 6th to 3rd century BC, Bahrain was added to the Persian Empire by the Achaemenian dynasty. By about 250 BC, the Parthians brought the Persian Gulf under its control and extended its influence as far as Oman. During the classical era, the island was known as Tylos in Europe. In order to control trade routes, the Parthians established garrisons along the southern coast of the Persian Gulf. In the 3rd century, Ardashir I, the first ruler of the Sassanid dynasty, marched on Oman and Bahrain, where he defeated Sanatruq the ruler of Bahrain. At this time, Bahrain comprised the southern Sassanid province along with the Persian Gulf's southern shore.
The Sassanid Empire divided their southern province into the three districts of Haggar (now al-Hafuf province in Saudi Arabia), Batan Ardashir (now al-Qatif province in Saudi Arabia) and Mishmahig (which in Middle-Persian/Pahlavi means "ewe-fish"). Early Islamic sources describe the country as inhabited by members of the Abdul Qais, Tamim, and Bakr tribes who worshipped the idol Awal, from which the Arabs named the island of Bahrain Awal for many centuries. However, Bahrayn was also a center of Nestorian Christianity, including two of its bishoprics.
Islamic conversion, Iranian dynasties, and Portuguese control
Traditional Islamic accounts state that Al-ʿAlāʾ Al-Haḍrami was sent as an envoy to the Bahrain region by the prophet Muhammad in AD 628 and that Munzir ibn-Sawa al-Tamimi, the local ruler, responded to his mission and converted the entire area.
In 899 AD, the Qarmatians, a millenarian Ismaili Muslim sect seized Bahrain, seeking to create a utopian society based on reason and redistribution of property among initiates. Thereafter, the Qarmatians demanded tribute from the caliph in Baghdad, and in 930 AD sacked Mecca and Medina, bringing the sacred Black Stone back to their base in Ahsa, in medieval Bahrain, for ransom. According to historian Al-Juwayni, the stone was returned 22 years later in 951 under mysterious circumstances. Wrapped in a sack, it was thrown into the Great Mosque of Kufa in Iraq, accompanied by a note saying "By command we took it, and by command we have brought it back." The theft and removal of the Black Stone caused it to break into seven pieces.
Following a 976 AD defeat by the Abbasids, the Quarmations were overthrown by the Arab Uyunid dynasty of al-Hasa, who took over the entire Bahrain region in 1076. The Uyunids controlled Bahrain until 1235, when the archipelago was briefly occupied by the Iranian ruler of Fars. In 1253, the Bedouin Usfurids brought down the Uyunid dynasty, thereby gaining control over eastern Arabia, including the islands of Bahrain. In 1330, the archipelago became a tributary state of the rulers of Hormuz, though locally the islands were controlled by the Shi'ite Jarwanid dynasty of Qatif.
Until the late Middle Ages, "Bahrain" referred to the larger historical region of Bahrain that included Al-Ahsa, Al-Qatif (both now within the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia) and the Awal Islands (now the Bahrain Islands). The region stretched from Basra in Iraq to the Strait of Hormuz in Oman. This was Iqlīm al-Bahrayn's "Bahrayn Province". The exact date at which the term "Bahrain" began to refer solely to the Awal archipelago is unknown. In the mid-15th century, the archipelago came under the rule of the Jabrids, a Bedouin dynasty also based in Al-Ahsa that ruled most of eastern Arabia.
In 1521, the Portuguese allied with Hormuz and seized Bahrain from the Jabrid ruler Migrin ibn Zamil, who was killed during the takeover. Portuguese rule lasted for around 80 years, during which time they depended mainly on Sunni Persian governors. The Portuguese were expelled from the islands in 1602 by Abbas I of the Safavid dynasty of Iran, who declared Shia Islam the official religion of Bahrain. For the next two centuries, Iranian rulers retained control of the archipelago, interrupted by the 1717 and 1738 invasions of the Ibadhis of Oman. During most of this period, they resorted to governing Bahrain indirectly, either through the city of Bushehr or through immigrant Sunni Arab clans. The latter were tribes returning to the Arabian side of the Persian Gulf from Persian territories in the north who were known as Huwala (literally: those that have changed or moved). In 1753, the Huwala clan of Al Madhkur invaded Bahrain on behalf of the Iranians and restored direct Iranian rule.
Rise of the Bani Utbah
In 1783, Nasr Al-Madhkur, ruler of Bahrain and Bushire, lost the islands of Bahrain following his defeat by the Bani Utbah tribe at the 1782 Battle of Zubarah. Bahrain was not new territory to the Bani Utbah; they had been a presence there since the 17th century. During that time, they started purchasing date palm gardens in Bahrain. A document belonging to Shaikh Salama Bin Saif Al Utbi, one of the shaikhs of the Al Bin Ali tribe (an offshoot of the Bani Utbah), states that Mariam Bint Ahmed Al Sindi, a Shia woman, sold a palm garden on the island of Sitra to Shaikh Salama Bin Saif Al Utbi in the year 1699–1111 Hijri calendar, preceding the arrival of the Al-Khalifa to Bahrain by more than 90 years.
The Al Bin Ali were the dominant group controlling the town of Zubarah on the Qatar peninsula, originally the center of power of the Bani Utbah. After the Bani Utbah gained control of Bahrain, the Al Bin Ali had a practically independent status there as a self-governing tribe. They used a flag with four red and three white stripes, called the Al-Sulami flag in Bahrain, Qatar, Kuwait, and the Eastern province of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. It was raised on their ships during wartime, in the pearl season and on special occasions such as weddings and during Eid ul-Fitr as well as in the "Ardha of war". The Al Bin Ali were known for their courage, persistence, and abundant wealth.
Later, different Arab family clans and tribes, mostly from Qatar, moved to Bahrain to settle after the fall of the Zand Dynasty of Persia. These families and tribes included the Al Khalifa, Al-Ma'awdah, Al-Fadhil, Al-Mannai, Al-Noaimi, Al-Sulaiti, Al-Sadah, Al-Thawadi, and other families and tribes.
Most of these tribes settled in Muharraq, the capital of Bahrain and center of power at that time since the Al Bin Ali lived there. The oldest and largest neighbourhood in Muharraq city is called Al Bin Ali. Members of this tribe lived in this area for more than three centuries. [cn]
Al Khalifa ascendancy to Bahrain and their treaties with the British
In 1797, fourteen years later after gaining the power of the Bani Utbah, the Al Khalifa family moved to Bahrain and settled in Jaww, later moving to Riffa. They were originally from Kuwait having left in 1766. Al-Sabah family traditions relates that the ancestors of their tribe and those of the Al-Khalifa tribe came to Kuwait after their expulsion from Umm Qasr upon Khor Zubair by the Turks, an earlier base from which they preyed on the caravans of Basra and pirated ships in the Shatt al-Arab waterway.
In the early 19th century, Bahrain was invaded by both the Omanis and the Al Sauds. In 1802 it was governed by a twelve year old child, when the Omani ruler Sayyid Sultan installed his son, Salim, as Governor in the Arad Fort.
In 1820, the Al Khalifa tribe regained power in Bahrain and entered a treaty relationship with Great Britain, by then the dominant military power in the Persian Gulf. This treaty granted the Al Khalifa the title of Rulers ("Al-Hakim" in Arabic) of Bahrain.
After Egyptian ruler Mohammad Ali Pasha took the Arabian Peninsula from the Wahhabis on behalf of the Ottoman Empire in 1830, Sheikh Abdul Al Khalifa declared allegiance to the Iranian Government to avoid the Egyptians taking control of Bahrain.
In 1860, the Government of Al Khalifa used the same tactic when the British tried to overpower Bahrain. Sheikh Mohammad bin Khalifa Al Khalifa wrote a letter to Nasseredin Shah of Iran declaring himself, his brother and all of members of Al Khalifa and the people of Bahrain Iranian subjects. In another letter to the Iranian Foreign Minister, Sheikh Mohammad demanded that the Government of Iran provide direct guidance and protection from British pressure.
Later on, under pressure from Colonel Sir Lewis Pelly, Sheikh Mohammad requested military assistance from Iran, but the Government of Iran at that time had no ability to protect Bahrain from British aggression. As a result the Government of British India eventually overpowered Bahrain. Colonel Pelly signed an agreement with Sheikh Mohammad in May 1861 and later with his brother Sheikh Ali that placed Bahrain under British rule and protection.
In 1868, following the Qatari–Bahraini War, British representatives signed another agreement with the Al Khalifa rulers, making Bahrain part of the British protectorate territories in the Persian Gulf. This treaty was similar to those entered into by the British Government with the other Persian Gulf principalities. It specified that the ruler could not dispose of any of his territory except to the United Kingdom and could not enter into relationships with any foreign government without British consent. In return the British promised to protect Bahrain from all aggression by sea and to lend support in case of land attack. More importantly the British promised to support the rule of the Al Khalifa in Bahrain, securing its unstable position as rulers of the country. Other agreements in 1880 and 1892 sealed the protectorate status of Bahrain to the British.
According to School of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS) academic, Nelida Fuccaro:
From this perspective state building under the Al Khalifa shayks should not be considered exclusively as the result of Britain's informal empire in the Persian Gulf. In fact, it was a long process of strategic negotiation with different sections of the local population in order to establish a pre-eminence of their particularly artistic Sunni/Bedouin tradition of family rule.—Nelida Fuccaro, Persians and the space in the city in Bahrain 1869–1937
Unrest amongst the people of Bahrain began when Britain officially established complete dominance over the territory in 1892. The first revolt and widespread uprising took place in March 1895 against Sheikh Issa bin Ali, then Ruler of Bahrain. Sheikh Issa was the first of the Al Khalifa to rule without Iranian relations. Sir Arnold Wilson, Britain's representative in the Persian Gulf and author of The Persian Gulf, arrived in Bahrain from Mascat at this time. The uprising developed further with some protesters killed by British forces.
Peace and trade brought a new prosperity to Bahrain. With the country no longer dependent upon pearling, by the mid-19th century it became the pre-eminent trading centre in the Persian Gulf, overtaking rivals Basra, Kuwait, and finally, in the 1870s, Muscat. At the same time, Bahrain's socio-economic development began to diverge from the rest of the Persian Gulf undergoing transformation from a tribal trading centre to a modern state. This process was spurred by the arrival of large numbers of Persian, Huwala, and Indian merchant families who set up businesses on the island, making it the hub of a web of trade routes across the Persian Gulf, Persia and the Indian sub-continent. A contemporary account of Manama in 1862 found:
Mixed with the indigenous population [of Manamah] are numerous strangers and settlers, some of whom have been established here for many generations back, attracted from other lands by the profits of either commerce or the pearl fishery, and still retaining more or less the physiognomy and garb of their native countries. Thus the gay-coloured dress of the southern Persian, the saffron-stained vest of Oman, the white robe of Nejed, and the striped gown of Bagdad, are often to be seen mingling with the light garments of Bahreyn, its blue and red turban, its white silk-fringed cloth worn Banian fashion round the waist, and its frock-like overall; while a small but unmistakable colony of Indians, merchants by profession, and mainly from Guzerat, Cutch, and their vicinity, keep up here all their peculiarities of costume and manner, and live among the motley crowd, ‘among them, but not of them’.—WG Palgrave, Narrative of a Year's Journey through Central and Eastern Arabia (1862–3)
Palgrave's description of Manama's coffee houses in the mid-19th century portrays them as cosmopolitan venues in contrast to what he describes as the ‘closely knit and bigoted universe of central Arabia’. Palgrave describes a people with an open – even urbane – outlook: "Of religious controversy I have never heard one word. In short, instead of Zelators and fanatics, camel-drivers and Bedouins, we have at Bahrain [Manama] something like 'men of the world, who know the world like men' a great relief to the mind; certainly it was so to mine."
The great trading families that emerged during this period have been compared to the Borgias and Medicis and their great wealth – long before the oil wealth the region would later be renowned for – gave them extensive power, and among the most prominent were the Persian Al Safar family, who held the position of Native Agents of Britain in 19th century. The Al Safar enjoyed an 'exceptionally close' relationship with the Al Khalifa clan from 1869, although the Al-Khalifa never intermarried with them – it has been speculated that this was to limit the Al-Safars' influence on the ruling family or because the Al-Safars were Shia Muslims.
Bahrain's trade with India saw the cultural influence of the subcontinent grow dramatically, with styles of dress, cuisine, and education all showing a marked Indian influence. According to Exeter University's James Onley "In these and countless other ways, eastern Arabia's ports and people were as much a part of the Indian Ocean world as they were a part of the Arab world."
In 1911, a group of Bahraini merchants demanded restrictions on the British influence in the country. The group's leaders were subsequently arrested and exiled to India. In 1923, the British deposed Sheikh Issa bin Ali whom they accused of opposing Britain and set up a permanent representative in Bahrain. This coincided with renewal of Iran's claim over the ownership of Bahrain, a development that Sheikh Issa had been accused of welcoming. The preference shown by the people of Bahrain towards the renewal of Iran ownership's claim also caused concern for Britain. To remedy these problems, in 1926, Britain dispatched Sir Charles Belgrave, one of her most experienced colonial officers, as an advisor to the Ruler of Bahrain. His harsh measures intensified the increasing aversion of people towards him and led to his eventual expulsion from Bahrain in 1957. Belgrave's colonial undertakings were not limited to violent deeds against Bahrainis but also included a series of initiatives that included removal of Iranian influence on Bahrain and the Persian Gulf. In 1937, Belgrave proposed changing the name of the Persian Gulf to the "Gulf of Arabia", a move that did not take place.
In 1927, Rezā Shāh demanded the return of Bahrain in a letter to the Allied Nations Community.[clarification needed "League of Nations?"] Britain believed that weakened domination over Bahrain would cause her to lose control all over the Persian Gulf, and decided to bring uprisings amongst the people of Bahrain under control at any cost. To achieve this they encouraged conflicts between Shiite and Sunni Muslims in Bahrain[cn].
Bahrain underwent a period of major social reform between and 1957, under the de facto rule of Charles Belgrave, the British advisor to Shaikh Hamad ibn Isa Al Khalifa (1872–1942). The country's first modern school, the Al-Hiddaya Boys School, was established in 1919, whilst the Arab Persian Gulf's first girls' school opened in 1928. The American Mission Hospital, established by the Dutch Reformed Church, began work in 1903. Other reforms included the abolition of slavery. At the same time, the pearl diving industry developed at a rapid pace.
These reforms were often vigorously opposed by powerful groups within Bahrain including sections within the ruling family, tribal forces, the religious authorities and merchants. In order to counter conservatives, the British removed the Ruler, Isa ibn Ali Al Khalifa in and replaced him with his son. Some Sunni tribes such as the al Dossari left Bahrain to mainland Arabia, whilst clerical opponents of social reforms were exiled to Saudi Arabia and Iran. The heads of some merchant and notable families were likewise exiled[cn]. Britain's interest in Bahrain's development was motivated by concerns over the ambitions of the Saudi-Wahabi and the Iranians.
Discovery of petroleum
The discovery of oil in by Bahrain Petroleum Company brought rapid modernisation to Bahrain. Relations with the United Kingdom became closer, as evidenced by the British Royal Navy moving its entire Middle Eastern command from Bushehr in Iran to Bahrain in 1935. British influence continued to grow as the country developed, culminating with the appointment of Charles Belgrave as advisor. He went on to establish a modern education system in Bahrain. After World War II, increasing anti-British sentiment spread throughout the Arab World and led to riots in Bahrain. The riots focused on the Jewish community, which included distinguished writers, singers, accountants, engineers and middle managers working for the oil company, textile merchants with business all over the peninsula, and free professionals.
In 1948, following rising hostilities and looting, most members of Bahrain's Jewish community abandoned their properties and evacuated to Bombay, later settling in Israel (Pardes Hanna-Karkur) and the United Kingdom. As of 37 Jews remained in the country. The issue of compensation was never settled. In 1960, the United Kingdom put forward Bahrain's future for international arbitration and requested that the United Nations Secretary-General take on this responsibility.
Drop of Iranian claim
Iran's parliament passed a bill in November declaring Bahrain to be the 14th province of Iran, with two empty seats allocated for its representatives. This action caused numerous problems for Iran in its international relations, especially with some United Nations bodies, Britain, Saudi Arabia, and a number of Arab countries.
At this time, Britain set out to change the demographics of Bahrain. The policy of “deiranisation” consisted of importing a large number of different Arabs and others from British colonies as labourers.
Demonstrations in forced the Al Khalifa rulers to leave Manama (the capital) for the village of Refae Al Gharbi where only Sunni Arabs serving as their bodyguards were allowed to live.
In Britain began dialogue with Iran to determine their borders in the Persian Gulf. Before long extensive differences over borders and territory came to light, including the dispute over the dominion of Bahrain. The two were not able to determine the maritime borders between the northern and southern countries of the Persian Gulf. At the same time King Faisal of Saudi Arabia arrived in Iran on a visit which included the creation of Islamic Conference and the decision to determine the maritime borders of the two countries. In return, the Shah of Iran agreed to visit Saudi Arabia in 1967. A week before this visit, the Saudis received Sheikh Isa bin Salman Al Khalifa, the that time Ruler of Bahrain as a head of state in the Saudi capital Riyadh. As a result the Shah's visit was cancelled, seriously damaging relations between the two countries. Following mediation by King Hassan II of Morocco the relationship was repaired.
Eventually Iran and Britain agreed to put the matter of Dominion of Bahrain to international judgment and requested the United Nations General Secretary take on this responsibility.
Iran pressed hard for a referendum in Bahrain in the face of strong opposition from both the British and the Bahraini leaders. Their opposition was based on Al Khalifa's view that such a move would negate 150 years of their clan's rule in the country. In the end, as an alternative to the referendum, Iran and Britain agreed to request the United Nations conduct an opinion poll in Bahrain that would determine the political future of the territory. In reply to letters from the British and Iranians, U Thant, then Secretary General of the United Nations, declared that an opinion poll would take place on 30 March 1970. Vittorio Winspeare-Giucciardi, Manager of the United Nations office in Geneva was put in charge of the project. Report no. 9772 was submitted to the UN General Secretary and on 11 May 1970, the United Nations Security Council endorsed Winspeare's conclusion that an overwhelming majority of the people wished recognition of Bahrain's identity as a fully independent and sovereign state free to decide its own relations with other states. Both Britain and Iran accepted the report and brought their dispute to a close.
The oil boom of the 1970s benefited Bahrain greatly, although the subsequent downturn hurt the economy. The country had already begun diversification of its economy and benefited further from the 1970s Lebanese Civil War, when Bahrain replaced Beirut as the Middle East's financial hub after Lebanon's large banking sector was driven out of the country by the war. Following the Islamic revolution in Iran, in Bahraini Shī'a fundamentalists orchestrated a failed coup attempt under the auspices of a front organisation, the Islamic Front for the Liberation of Bahrain. The coup would have installed a Shī'a cleric exiled in Iran, Hujjatu l-Islām Hādī al-Mudarrisī, as supreme leader heading a theocratic government. In 1994, a wave of rioting by disaffected Shīa Islamists was sparked by women's participation in a sporting event.
During the mid-1990s, Bahrain was badly affected by sporadic violence between the government and the cleric-led opposition in which over forty people were killed. In March 1999, Hamad ibn Isa Al Khalifah succeeded his father as Emir (head of state) and instituted elections for parliament, gave women the right to vote, and released all political prisoners. These moves were described by Amnesty International as representing an "historic period of human rights". As part of the adoption of the National Action Charter on 14 February Bahrain changed its formal name from the State (dawla) of Bahrain to the Kingdom of Bahrain.
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Bahrain is a Constitutional monarchy headed by the King, Shaikh Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa; the head of government is the Prime Minister, Shaikh Khalīfa bin Salman al Khalifa, who is the uncle of the current king. Bahrain has a bicameral National Assembly (al-Jamiyh al-Watani) consisting of the Shura Council (Majlis Al-Shura) with 40 seats and the Council of Representatives (Majlis Al-Nuwab) with 40 seats. The 40 members of the Shura are appointed by the king. In the Council of Representatives, 40 members are elected by absolute majority vote in single-member constituencies to serve 4-year terms.
The first round of voting in the parliamentary election took place on 25 November and in the second round Islamists hailed a huge election victory.
The opening up of politics has seen big gains for both Shīa and Sunnī Islamists in elections, which have given them a parliamentary platform to pursue their policies[cn]. This has meant parties launching campaigns to impose bans on female mannequins displaying lingerie in shop windows, and the hanging of underwear on washing lines.
Analysts of democratisation in the Middle East cite the Islamists' references to respect for human rights in their justification for these programmes as evidence that these groups can serve as a progressive force in the region[cn]. Islamist parties have been particularly critical of the government's readiness to sign international treaties such as the United Nation's International Convention on Civil and Political Rights. At a parliamentary session in June to discuss ratification of the Convention, Sheikh Adel Mouwda, the former leader of salafist party, Asalah, explained the party's objections: "The convention has been tailored by our enemies, God kill them all, to serve their needs and protect their interests rather than ours. This why we have eyes from the American Embassy watching us during our sessions, to ensure things are swinging their way".
Both Sunnī and Shī'a Islamists suffered a setback in March when 20 municipal councillors, most of whom represented religious parties, went missing in Bangkok on an unscheduled stopover when returning from a conference in Malaysia. After the missing councillors eventually arrived in Bahrain they defended their stay at the Radisson Hotel in Bangkok, telling journalists it was a "fact-finding mission", and explaining: "We benefited a lot from the trip to Thailand because we saw how they managed their transport, landscaping and roads". Bahraini liberals have responded to the growing power of religious parties by organising themselves to campaign through civil society in order to defend basic personal freedoms from being legislated away[cn]. In November al Muntada, a grouping of liberal academics, launched "We Have A Right", a campaign to explain to the public why personal freedoms matter and why they need to be defended[cn].
Women's political rights in Bahrain saw an important step forward when women were granted the right to vote and stand in national elections for the first time in the election. However, no women were elected to office in that year's polls. Instead, Shī'a and Sunnī Islamists dominated the election, collectively winning a majority of seats[cn]. In response to the failure of women candidates, six were appointed to the Shura Council, which also includes representatives of the Kingdom's indigenous Jewish and Christian communities[cn]. Dr. Nada Haffadh became the country's first female cabinet minister on her appointment as Minister of Health in. The quasi-governmental women's group, the Supreme Council for Women, trained female candidates to take part in the general election. When Bahrain was elected to head the United Nations General Assembly in it appointed lawyer and women's rights activist Haya bint Rashid Al Khalifa President of the United Nations General Assembly, only the third woman in history to head the world body. The King recently created the Supreme Judicial Council to regulate the country's courts and institutionalise the separation of the administrative and judicial branches of government; the leader of this court is Mohammed Humaidan.
On 11–12 November Bahrain hosted the Forum for the Future, bringing together leaders from the Middle East and G8 countries to discuss political and economic reform in the region. The near total dominance of religious parties in elections has given a new prominence to clerics within the political system, with the most senior Shia religious leader, Sheikh Isa Qassim, playing an extremely important role. According to one academic paper, "In fact, it seems that few decisions can be arrived at in Al Wefaq – and in the whole country, for that matter – without prior consultation with Isa Qassim, ranging from questions with regard to the planned codification of the personal status law to participation in elections". In Al Wefaq-backed parliamentary investigations were credited with forcing the government to remove ministers who had frequently clashed with MPs: the Minister of Health, Dr. Nada Haffadh and the Minister of Information, Dr Mohammed Abdul Gaffar.
1990s uprising in Bahrain
The "1990s Uprising in Bahrain" or "1990s Intifada" was a rebellion in Bahrain between and in which leftists, liberals and Islamists joined forces. The event resulted in approximately forty deaths and ended after Hamad ibn Isa Al Khalifa became the Emir of Bahrain in 1999. A referendum on 14–15 February massively supported the National Action Charter.
The protests in Bahrain were initially aimed at achieving greater political freedom and respect for human rights, and were not intended to threaten the monarchy; nor were they as large as those in other countries. Lingering frustration among the Shiite majority with being ruled by the Sunni government was a major root cause, but the protests in Tunisia and Egypt are cited as the inspiration for the demonstrations. The protests began in Bahrain on 14 February and were largely peaceful, until a raid by police on the night of 17 February against protesters sleeping at the Pearl Roundabout in Manama, in which police killed four protesters. Following the deadly raid, some of the protesters began to expand their aims to a call for the end of the monarchy, which has ruled Bahrain since the late 18th century. On 18 February, government forces opened fire on protesters, mourners, and news journalists, prompting protesters to begin calling for the overthrow of the Bahraini monarchy and government. On 19 February, protesters occupied Pearl Roundabout after the government ordered troops and police to withdraw. On 22 February, an estimated one hundred thousand people, one fifth of all Bahrainis, marched. On 14 March, at the request of the Crown Prince, GCC Saudi Arabian troops entered the country, and opened fire on the protesters, several of whom were killed. Later thousands of Shia protesters arose in Iraq and Qatif in opposition to the Saudi-led intervention in Bahrain.
King Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa declared a three-month state of emergency on 15 March and asked the military to reassert its control as clashes spread across the country. It was later lifted on 1 June. On 16 March the protesters' camp in the Pearl Roundabout was evacuated, bulldozed, and set on fire by the Bahraini Defense Force and riot police. Later on 18 March, the Pearl Roundabout monument was torn down as part of the crackdown on protesters. Human rights organizations reported that, in the 8 months following the outbreak of protests on 14 February, more than 1,600 peaceful political protesters, medical professionals, journalists, human rights defenders and innocent bystanders had been arrested, and more than 100 people convicted by a special military court established by the government.
Since the lifting of emergency law on 1 June, several large rallies have been staged by the Shi'ite community demanding the release of detained protesters, greater political representation, and an end to sectarian discrimination. In July medical personnel were tried by special military courts for treating injured protesters and sentenced to multi-year prison sentences. Several human rights groups and news organizations have alleged they have been deliberately targeted by the Bahraini government.
On 23 November the Bahrain Independent Commission of Inquiry released its report on human rights violations during the February and March protests, finding that the government "systematically" tortured prisoners, summarily fired Shi'ite employees and university students, and committed other gross human rights violations. One of the report's recommendations was to allow human rights groups into the country to monitor the situation. Between 23 November and the end of January, however, the Bahraini government refused entry to several international human rights groups including Freedom House, Human Rights First  and Physicians for Human Rights.
On 9 March hundreds of thousands protested in one of the biggest anti-govemrent rallies to date. According to CNN, the march "filled a four-lane highway between Duraz and Muksha". The government said 100,000 had participated in the march, whilst opposition activists estimated the number to be more than 200,000. The march was called for by Sheikh Isa Qassim, Bahrain's top Shia cleric. Protesters called for downfall of King and the release of imprisoned political leaders. The protest ended peacefully, however hundreds of youth tried to march back to the site of the now demolished symbolic Pearl roundabout, and were dispersed by security forces with tear gas. Nabeel Rajab, president of BCHR called the march "the biggest in our history".
- For further information, see PDF (732 KB) from the Bahrain official website.
Bahrain is split into five governorates. These governorates are:
|1. Capital Governorate|
|2. Central Governorate|
|3. Muharraq Governorate|
|4. Northern Governorate|
|5. Southern Governorate|
According to a January report by the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia, Bahrain has the fastest growing economy in the Arab world. Bahrain also has the freest economy in the Middle East and is twelfth freest overall in the world based on the Index of Economic Freedom published by the Heritage Foundation/Wall Street Journal, .
In Bahrain was named the world's fastest growing financial center by the City of London's Global Financial Centres Index. Bahrain's banking and financial services sector, particularly Islamic banking, have benefited from the regional boom driven by demand for oil. In Bahrain, petroleum production and processing account for about 60% of export receipts, 60% of government revenues, and 30% of GDP.
Economic conditions have fluctuated with the changing price of oil since 1985, for example during and following the Persian Gulf crisis of 1990–91. With its highly developed communication and transport facilities, Bahrain is home to a number of multinational firms and construction proceeds on several major industrial projects. A large share of exports consist of petroleum products made from imported crude oil. In Bahrain signed the US-Bahrain Free Trade Agreement, which will reduce certain trade barriers between the two nations.
Unemployment, especially among the young, and the depletion of both oil and underground water resources are major long-term economic problems. In the jobless figure was at 4%, with women over represented at 85% of the total. In Bahrain became the first Arab country to institute unemployment benefits as part of a series of labour reforms instigated under Minister of Labour, Dr. Majeed Al Alawi.
Bahrain is a generally flat and arid archipelago in the Persian Gulf, east of Saudi Arabia. It consists of a low desert plain rising gently to a low central escarpment with the highest point the 134 m (440 ft) Mountain of Smoke (Jabal ad Dukhan). Bahrain has a total area of 665 km2 (257 sq mi), which is slightly larger than the Isle of Man, though it is smaller than the nearby King Fahd International Airport near Dammam, Saudi Arabia (780 km2 (301 sq mi)).
As an archipelago of thirty-three islands, Bahrain does not share a land boundary with another country but does have a 161 km (100 mi) coastline. The country also claims a further 22 km (12 nmi) of territorial sea and a 44 km (24 nmi) contiguous zone. Bahrain's largest islands are Bahrain Island, Muharraq Island, Umm an Nasan, and Sitrah. Bahrain has mild winters and very hot, humid summers. The country's natural resources include large quantities of oil and natural gas as well as fish in the offshore waters. Arable land constitutes only 2.82% of the total area.
92% of Bahrain is desert with periodic droughts and dust storms the main natural hazards for Bahrainis. Environmental issues facing Bahrain include desertification resulting from the degradation of limited arable land, coastal degradation (damage to coastlines, coral reefs, and sea vegetation) resulting from oil spills and other discharges from large tankers, oil refineries, distribution stations, and illegal land reclamation at places such as Tubli Bay. The agricultural and domestic sectors' over-utilization of the Dammam Aquifer, the principal aquifer in Bahrain, has led to its salinisation by adjacent brackish and saline water bodies.[cn]
The Zagros Mountains across the Persian Gulf in Iraq cause low level winds to be directed toward Bahrain. Dust storms from Iraq and Saudi Arabia transported by northwesterly winds cause reduced visibility in the months of June and July.
Due to the Persian Gulf area's low moisture, summers are very hot and dry. The seas around Bahrain are very shallow, heating up quickly in the summer to produce high humidity, especially at night. Summer temperatures may reach more than 40 °C (104 °F) under the right conditions. Rainfall in Bahrain is minimal and irregular. Rainfalls mostly occur in winter, with a recorded maximum of 71.8 mm (2.83 in).
|Climate data for Manama|
|Average high °C (°F)||20.0
|Average low °C (°F)||14.1
|Precipitation mm (inches)||14.6
|Avg. precipitation days||2.0||1.9||1.9||1.4||0.2||0||0||0||0||0.1||0.7||1.7||9.9|
|Source: World Meteorological Organisation (UN) |
|Religion in Bahrain|
In Bahrain's population grew to 1.2 million, of which 568,399 were Bahraini and 666,172 were non-nationals. It had risen from 1.05 million (517,368 non-nationals) in the year when Bahrain's population crossed the one million mark. Though a majority of the population is ethnically Arab, a sizeable number of people from South Asia live in the country. In approximately 290,000 Indian nationals lived in Bahrain, making them the single largest expatriate community in the country.
Bahrain is the fourth most densely populated sovereign state in the world with a population density of 1,646 people per km2 in . The only sovereign states with larger population densities are city states. Much of this population is concentrated in the north of the country with the Southern Governorate being the least densely populated part. The north of the country is so urbanized that it is considered by some to be one large metropolitan area.
The official religion of Bahrain is Islam and 99.8% of Bahraini citizens are Muslim. There are no official figures for the proportion of Shia and Sunni among the Muslims of Bahrain, but approximately 66-70% percent of Bahraini Muslims are Shias.  Due to an influx of immigrants and guest workers from non-Muslim countries, such as India, Philippines and Sri Lanka, the overall percentage of Muslims in the country has declined in recent years. According to the census, 81.2% of Bahrain's population was Muslim, 9% were Christian, and 9.8% practised Hinduism or other religions. The census records that the Muslim proportion had fallen to 70.2% (the census did not differentiate between the non-Muslim religions). 
Bahrain is sometimes described as "Middle East lite" due to its combination of modern infrastructure with a Persian Gulf identity. While Islam is the main religion, Bahrainis are known for their tolerance towards the practice of other faiths.[cn]
It is too early to say whether political liberalisation under King Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa has augmented or undermined Bahrain's traditional pluralism. The new political space for Shia and Sunni Islamists has meant that they are now more able to pursue programs that often seek to directly confront this pluralism. At the same time, political reforms have encouraged an opposite trend whereby society becomes more self-critical and shows a greater willingness to examine previous social taboos.[cn]
In common with the rest of the Muslim world, though Bahrain has take strong strides for women's rights, it does not recognise lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender rights.[cn]
Another facet of the new openness is Bahrain's status as the most prolific book publisher in the Arab world, with 132 books published in for a population of 700,000. In comparison, the average for the entire Arab world was seven books published per one million people, according to the United Nations Development Programme. Ali Bahar is the most famous singer in Bahrain. He performs his music with his Band Al-Ekhwa (The Brothers).
Arabic is the official language of Bahrain, though English is widely used. Bahrani Arabic is the most widely spoken language.
Formula One and other motorsports events
Bahrain has a Formula One race-track, which hosted the inaugural Gulf Air Grand Prix on 4 April the first in an Arab country. This was followed by the Bahrain Grand Prix in. Bahrain hosted the opening Grand Prix of the season on 12 March of that year. Both the above races were won by Fernando Alonso of Renault. The event took place on 13, 14 April and 15.
In Bahrain also hosted its inaugural Australian V8 Supercar event dubbed the "Desert 400". The V8s will return every November to the Sakhir circuit. The Bahrain International Circuit also features a full length drag strip where the Bahrain Drag Racing Club has organised invitational events featuring some of Europe's top drag racing teams[cn] to try to raise the profile of the sport in the Middle East.
On 1 September Bahrain changed its weekend from being Thursdays and Fridays to Fridays and Saturdays, in order to have a day of the weekend shared with the rest of the world. Other non-regular holidays are listed below:
|Date||English name||Local (Arabic) name||Description|
|1 January||New Year's Day||رأس السنة الميلادية||The Gregorian New Year's Day, celebrated by most parts of the world.|
|1 May||Labour Day||يوم العمال|
|16 December||National Day||اليوم الوطني||National Day, Accession Day for the late Amir Sh. Isa Bin Salman Al Khalifa|
|17 December||Accession Day||يوم الجلوس|
|1st Muharram||Islamic New Year||رأس السنة الهجرية||Islamic New Year (also known as: Hijri New Year).|
|9th, 10th Muharram||Day of Ashura||عاشوراء||Commemorates the martyrdom of Imam Hussein.|
|12th Rabiul Awwal||Prophet Muhammad's birthday||المولد النبوي||Commemorates Prophet Muhammad's birthday, celebrated in most parts of the Muslim world.|
|1st, 2nd, 3rd Shawwal||Little Feast||عيد الفطر||Commemorates end of Ramadan.|
|9th Zulhijjah||Arafat Day||يوم عرفة|
|10th, 11th, 12th Zulhijjah||Feast of the Sacrifice||عيد الأضحى||Commemorates Ibrahim's willingness to sacrifice his son. Also known as the Big Feast (celebrated from the 10th to 13th).|
The kingdom has a small but well equipped military called the Bahrain Defence Force (BDF). The BDF is primarily equipped with United States equipment, such as the F16 Fighting Falcon, F5 Freedom Fighter, UH60 Blackhawk, M60A3 tanks, and the ex-USS Jack Williams, an Oliver Hazard Perry class frigate renamed the RBNS Sabha. The Government of Bahrain has a cooperative agreement with the United States Military and has provided the United States a base in Juffair since the early 1990s. This is the home of the headquarters for Commander, United States Naval Forces Central Command (COMUSNAVCENT) / United States Fifth Fleet (COMFIFTHFLT), and about 1500 United States and coalition military personnel.
At the beginning of the 20th century, Qur'anic schools (Kuttab) were the only form of education in Bahrain. They were traditional schools aimed at teaching children and youth the reading of the Qur'an. After World War I, Bahrain became open to western influences, and a demand for modern educational institutions appeared. marked the beginning of modern public school system in Bahrain when the Al-Hidaya Al-Khalifia School for boys opened in Muharraq. In 1926, the Education Committee opened the second public school for boys in Manama, and in the first public school for girls was opened in Muharraq.
In King Hamad ibn Isa Al Khalifa introduced the "King Hamad Schools of Future project that uses Information Communication Technology to support K–12 education in Bahrain. The project's objective is to connect all schools within the kingdom with the Internet. In addition to British intermediate schools, the island is served by the Bahrain School (BS). The BS is a United States Department of Defense school that provides a K-12 curriculum including International Baccalaureate offerings. There are also private schools that offer either the IB Diploma Programme or United Kingdom A-Levels.
In St. Christopher's School Bahrain became the first school in Bahrain to offer a choice of International Baccalaureate or A-Levels for students. Numerous international educational institutions and schools have established links to Bahrain. A few prominent institutions are DePaul University, Bentley University, the Ernst & Young Training Institute, NYIT and the Birla Institute of Technology International Centre Schooling is paid for by the government. Primary and secondary school attendance is high[cn] even though it is not compulsory.
Bahrain also encourages institutions of higher learning, drawing on expatriate talent and the increasing pool of Bahrain Nationals returning from abroad with advanced degrees. The University of Bahrain was established for standard undergraduate and graduate study, and the King Abdulaziz University College of Health Sciences, operating under the direction of the Ministry of Health, trains physicians, nurses, pharmacists, and paramedics. The National Action Charter paved the way for the formation of private universities such as the Ahlia University in Manama and University College of Bahrain in Saar. The Royal University for Women (RUW), established in was the first private, purpose-built, international University in Bahrain dedicated solely to educating women. The University of London External has appointed MCG[clarification needed "What is MCG"] as the regional representative office in Bahrain for distance learning programs. MCG is one of the oldest private institutes in the country. Institutes have also opened which educate Asian students, such as the Pakistan Urdu School, Bahrain and the Indian School, Bahrain.
As a tourist destination, Bahrain receives over eight million visitors per annum[cn]. Most of these are from the surrounding Arab states although an increasing number hail from outside the region due to growing awareness of the kingdom's heritage and its higher profile as a result of the Bahrain International F1 Circuit. The Lonely Planet Guide describes Bahrain as "an excellent introduction to the Persian Gulf", because of its authentic Arab heritage and reputation as a liberal and modern country. The kingdom is also home to the popular tourist attraction, the Bahrain City Center.
The kingdom combines modern Arab culture and the archaeological legacy of five thousand years of civilisation. The island is home to castles including Qalat Al Bahrain which has been listed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site. The Bahrain National Museum has artefacts from the country's history dating back to the island's first human inhabitants some 9000 years ago.
- Outline of Bahrain
- Index of Bahrain-related articles
- Bahrain World Trade Center
- List of towns and villages of Bahrain
- List of tallest buildings and structures in Bahrain
- ↑ 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 "General Tables". Bahraini Census.
- ↑ 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 "Bahrain". International Monetary Fund.
- ↑ "Project overview: Qatar-Bahrain Causeway". 13 June.
- ↑ "Qal’at al-Bahrain – Ancient Harbour and Capital of Dilmun – UNESCO World Heritage Centre". Whc.unesco. 15 July.
- ↑ "Bahrain – Home of Motorsport in the Middle East".
- ↑ 7.0 7.1 Encyclopedia of Islam, Vol. I. "Bahrayn", p. 941. E.J. Brill (Leiden), 1960.
- ↑ Room, Adrian. Origins and Meanings of the Names for 6,600 Countries, Cities, Territories, Natural Features and Historic Sites.. ISBN 978-0-7864-2248-7.
- ↑ 9.0 9.1 Faroughy, Abbas. The Bahrein Islands (750–1951): A Contribution to the Study of Power Politics in the Persian Gulf. Verry, Fisher & Co. (New York), 1951.
- ↑ Rice, Michael. The Archaeology of the Arabian Gulf, c. 5000-323 BC. Routledge, 1994. ISBN 0-415-03268-7.
- ↑ History of Bahrain History of Nations website
- ↑ Security and Territoriality in the Persian Gulf: A Maritime Political Geography by Pirouz Mojtahed-Zadeh, page 119
- ↑ Bahrain By Federal Research Division, page 7
- ↑ 14.0 14.1 14.2 14.3 Robert G. Hoyland, Arabia and the Arabs: From the Bronze Age to the Coming of Islam, Routledge p. 28
- ↑ Conflict and Cooperation: Zoroastrian Subalterns and Muslim Elites in ... by Jamsheed K. Choksy, 1997, page 75
- ↑ A letter purported to be from Muhammad to al-Tamimi is preserved at the Beit al-Qur'an Museum in Hoora, Bahrain.
- ↑ Cyril Glasse, New Encyclopedia of Islam, p. 245. Rowman Altamira. ISBN 0-7591-0190-6
- ↑ Juan Cole, Sacred Space and Holy War, IB Tauris,
- ↑ Smith, G.R. "Uyūnids". Encyclopaedia of Islam. Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs. Brill. Brill Online. 16 March 
- ↑ Rentz, G. "al- Baḥrayn". Encyclopaedia of Islam. Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs. Brill. Brill Online. 15 March 
- ↑ Juan R. I. Cole, "Rival Empires of Trade and Imami Shiism in Eastern Arabia, 1300–1800", International Journal of Middle East Studies, Vol. 19, No. 2. (May 1987), pp. 177–203, at p. 179, through JSTOR. 
- ↑ Rentz, G. "al- Baḥrayn".
- ↑ 25.0 25.1 Rentz, "al- Baḥrayn".
- ↑ Juan R. I. Cole, "Rival Empires of Trade and Imami Shiism in Eastern Arabia, 1300–1800", p. 186, through JSTOR. 
- ↑ X. De Planhol
- ↑ Juan R. I. Cole, Rival Empires of Trade and Imami Shiism in Eastern Arabia, 1300–1800, p. 194
- ↑ Juan R. I. Cole, "Rival Empires of Trade and Imami Shiism in Eastern Arabia, 1300–1800", p. 187
- ↑ X. De Planhol, "Bahrain", Encyclopedia Iranica (online version)[dead link]
- ↑ J. A. Kechichian, "Bahrain", Encyclopedia Iranica (online version)[dead link]
- ↑ The Origins of Kuwait, B.J. Slot, p110
- ↑ Ownership deeds to a palm garden on the island of Sitra, Bahrain, belonging to Shaikh Salama Bin Saif Al Utbi, dated 1699–1111 Hijri,
- ↑ Arabia's Frontiers: The Story of Britain's Boundary Drawing in the Desert, John C. Wilkinson, p44
- ↑ Around the Coast, Amin Reehani, p297
- ↑ Gazetteer of the Persian Gulf, Oman, and Central Arabia, Geographical, Volume 1, 1905
- ↑ Picture of the Al Sulami Flag in the "Ardha of War" which was celebrated in Eid Al Fitr in Muharraq which was attended by Shaikh Salman Bin Hamad Al-Khalifa, ex Ruler of Bahrain,
- ↑ Arabian Studies by R.B. Serjeant, R.L. Bidwell, p67
- ↑ Gazetteer of the Persian Gulf, Oman, and Central Arabia, John Gordon Lorimer, Volume 1 Historical, Part 1, p1000, 1905
- ↑ James Onley, The Politics of Protection in the Persian Gulf: The Arab Rulers and the British Resident in the Nineteenth Century, Exeter University, p44
- ↑ Nelida Fuccaro, "Persians and the space in the city in Bahrain 1869–1937", in Transnational Connections and the Arab Persian Gulf by Madawi Al-Rasheed Routledge p41
- ↑ James Onley, The Politics of Protection in the Persian Gulf: The Arab Rulers and the British Resident in the Nineteenth Century, Exeter University,
- ↑ Larsen, p72
- ↑ 44.0 44.1 44.2 44.3 44.4 44.5 44.6 44.7 44.8 James Olney, Chapter "Transnational merchants in the nineteenth-century Gulf: the case of the Safar family" in Transnational Connections and the Arab Gulf Ed Madawi Al-Rasheed, Routledge, p59
- ↑ "Bahrain: Discovery of Oil". January 1993.
- ↑ "Bahrain".
- ↑ 47.0 47.1 The King of Bahrain Wants the Jews Back, Israel National News, 14 August
- ↑ "Bahrain’s journey from kingdom to province". MEED. 17 March.
- ↑ 49.0 49.1 Mojtahedzadeh, Piruz (1995). "Bahrain: the land of political movements". Rahavard, a Persian Journal of Iranian Studies XI (39).
- ↑ "Cascon Case BAH: Bahrain 1970".
- ↑ Bahrain Profile National Post 7 April
- ↑ "Stay just over the horizon this time", Time magazine, 25 October
- ↑ Rebellion in Bahrain, Middle East Review of International Affairs, March 1999
- ↑ "The Kingdom of Bahrain: The Constitutional Changes". The Estimate: Political and Security Analysis of the Islamic World and its Neighbors. 22 February.
- ↑ "Bahrain". International Foundation for Electoral Systems. 26 July.
- ↑ Gulf News, 27 November
- ↑ Mannequins ban councillor up in arms Gulf Daily News, 11 April
- ↑ Drying underwear in public 'offensive', Gulf Daily News, 11 March
- ↑ The International Convention on Civil and Political Rights Human Rights Web
- ↑ Rights push by Bahrain, Gulf Daily News, 14 June
- ↑ Councillors 'missing' in Bangkok, Gulf Daily News, 15 March
- ↑ Councillors face the music after Bangkok jaunt, Gulf Daily News (via Bahrain.tv) 16 March
- ↑ 'UN General Assembly to be headed by its third-ever woman president', United Nations, 8 June
- ↑ Bahrain Law on Judicial Authority[dead link] Published by the Arab Judicial Forum 15–17 September
- ↑ Bahrain sets up institute to train judges and prosecutors Gulf News, 15 November
- ↑ Forum for the Future Factsheet US State Department,
- ↑ , Katja Niethammar, Robert Schuman Centre for Advanced Studies, European University Institute,
- ↑ Bahrain ministries' probe to continue Gulf News, 25 September
- ↑ "Country Profiles Bahrain" The Arab Center for the Development of the Rule of Law and Integrity Retrieved 1 December
- ↑ "Country Theme: Elections: Bahrain". UNDP-Programme on Governance in the Arab Region.. Archived from the original on 9 February.
- ↑ 73.0 73.1 "Clashes mark Bahrain 'Day of Rage'". Al Jazeera. 14 February.
- ↑ Bronner, Ethan (15 March). "Two Protesters Dead as Bahrain Declares State of Emergency". The New York Times.
- ↑ "Clashes rock Bahraini capital". Al Jazeera. 17 February. Archived from the original on 17 February.
- ↑ "Bahrain protests: Police break up Pearl Roundabout crowd". BBC News. 17 February.
- ↑ "Bahrain mourners call for end to monarchy". The Guardian. Associated Press (London). 18 February. Archived from the original on 18 February.
- ↑ Slackman, Michael; Audi, Nadim (18 February). "Security Forces in Bahrain Open Fire on Protesters". The New York Times.
- ↑ "Protesters dig in after Bahrain's army opens fire". Charlotte Observer. 18 February.
- ↑ Connolly, Kevin (20 February). "Bahrain unrest: Protesters reoccupy Pearl Roundabout". BBC.
- ↑ "Day of transformation in Bahrain's 'sacred square'". BBC News. 19 February.
- ↑ "Protesters Retake Pearl Roundabout in Bahrain". The Wall Street Journal.
- ↑ "Saudi sends troops, Bahrain Shi'ites call it "war"". Reuters. 14 March.
- ↑ "Bahrain troops open fire on protesters; 2 killed – Rediff India News". Rediff. 16 March.
- ↑ "Three killed as troops open fire in Bahrain". The Australian. 17 March.
- ↑ al-Ansary, Khalid (16 March). "Iraq's Sadr Followers March Against Bahrain Crackdown". Reuters.
- ↑ "Crackdown in Bahrain Enflames Iraq's Shiites". Google News. Associated Press. 2 April.
- ↑ Arango, Tim (2 April). "Shiites in Iraq Support Bahrain's Protesters". The New York Times.
- ↑ "Bahrain Declares State of Emergency". Financial Times. 15 March.
- ↑ Chulov, Martin (1 June). "Bahrain sees new clashes as martial law lifted". The Guardian (London).
- ↑ "'Business-Friendly Bahrain' Disappears; Ex-Pats Exit". CNBC.
- ↑ Farmer, Ben (18 March). "Bahrain authorities destroy Pearl Roundabout". The Daily Telegraph (London).
- ↑ Gulbrandson, Jennifer (October). "Killing the Messenger: Bahrain’s Brutal Crackdown". Freedom House.
- ↑ "Bahrain court sentences protester to death, sends doctors to prison". Associated Press. 29 September.
- ↑ "Report: Doctors targeted in Bahrain". Al Jazeera. 18 July.
- ↑ "Report of the Bahrain Independent Commission of Inquiry". BICI.
- ↑ "Freedom House Delegation Denied Entry to Bahrain". Freedom House.
- ↑ "Freedom House denied entry to Bahrain despite visas". 22 January.
- ↑ "Bahrain Denies Brian Dooley Entry". Human Rights First. 13 January.
- ↑ "U.S. Rights Activist Denied Entry Into Bahrain". The Associated Press. 8 January.
- ↑ CNN Wire Staff (9 March). "Renewed protests demand democracy in Bahrain". CNN.
- ↑ Simeon Kerr (9 March). "Bahrain protesters march in huge rally". Financial Times.
- ↑ Staff writer (10 March). "Bahrain's Shias demand reform at mass rally". Al Jazeera English.
- ↑ 104.0 104.1 104.2 104.3 Bahrain expected to bustle Arabian Business, 1 February
- ↑ Index of Economic Freedom Heritage Foundation
- ↑ Bahrain Timeline BBC
- ↑ "Local News » JOBLESS RATE 3.8PC". Gulf Daily News. 4 August.
- ↑ "Khaleej Times Online – 85pc unemployed in Bahrain are females". Khaleejtimes. 4 August.
- ↑ Minister lashes out at parties opposed to unemployment benefit scheme Gulf News, 22 June
- ↑ 110.0 110.1 "CIA World Factbook, "Bahrain"". Cia.
- ↑ "Bahrain Weather". Bahrain Weather.
- ↑ "World Weather Information Service – Bahrain/Manama".
- ↑ "Bahrain's population crossed 1m in December". Gulfnews. 28 February.
- ↑ "290,000 Indians in Bahrain". Gulf-daily-news. 5 July.
- ↑ "Indian Community". Indian Embassy.
- ↑ "Why Bahrain blew up". New York Post.
- ↑ "Bahrain Shiites May Rally After Funeral for Protester". Bloomberg.
- ↑ "Bahrain: it may be small, but it matters - Channel 4 News". Channel4.
- ↑ "UK FCO". UK FCO.
- ↑ Bahrain's crown prince to visit India[dead link] Overseas Indian, 8 March
- ↑ "General Tables". Bahraini Census.
- ↑ "Bahrain: Middle East Lite".
- ↑ Possible original research present in the article when imported from Wikipedia.
- ↑ Possible original research present in the article when imported from Wikipedia.
- ↑ Bahrain tops publishing sector among Arab states Gulf News, 4 January
- ↑ "Bahrain International Circuit". Bahraingp.bh.
- ↑ United States Navy Central Command web site
- ↑ Bahrain, Destination Guide Lonely Planet
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Coordinates: 26°01′39″N 50°33′00″E / 26.02750°N 50.55000°E
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